This is an extract of our The Third Crusade document, which we sell as part of our Medieval History Notes collection written by the top tier of University Of Nottingham students.
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HISTORY REVISION - MEDIEVAL
The Third Crusade: King's Crusade Introduction and General Notes:1189-1192Attempt to reconquer the Holy Land from SaladinLargely successful; however did not achieve the ultimate goal of the recapture of Jerusalem from Muslim forcesAfter the failure of the second crusade, the Zengid dynasty controlled a unified Syria and went to war with the Fatimid rulers of Egypt, resulting in the unification of Egyptian and Syrian forces under SaladinSaladin greatly reduced the Christian states power in the East and conquered Jerusalem in 1187England and France declared peace in order to wage a crusade after the fall of the country of Edessa, and these were led by King Richard I of England (the Lionheart) and Phillip II of FranceThe Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa also led a massive army across Anatolia, but drowned before he reached the Holy Land and his army turned and headed back to their homelandSaladin failed to defeat Richard I in any military engagements and Richard's conquests secured several key coastal citiesOn September 2, 1192 Richard finalised a treaty with Saladin which dictated that Jerusalem would remain under Muslim control but also allow unarmed Christian pilgrims and merchants into the cityRichard's successes allowed the Crusaders to maintain a considerable kingdom based around the Syrian coast, however the failure to recapture Jerusalem led to the Fourth Crusade
Muslim unification:One of the things that assisted the cause of the first crusade was the lack of coherence amongst the Muslim world. With the unification of Muslim forces under Saladin, the recapture of Jerusalem and much of the holy land threatened the Crusader states set up at the end of the first crusadeSaladin conquered Acre and Jerusalem in 1187
Barbarossa's Crusade:Army of 100,000 men including 20,000 knightsFrederick sacked Iconium after consistent raiding from Eastern forcesOn June 10, 1190 Frederick drowned in a riverMost of his army returned to Germany in anticipation of the upcoming Imperial election
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