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Fascism Revision Notes

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Fascism Revision Revision

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HISTORY REVISION

Fascism Lecture: Definitions of Fascism:
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Ideology o

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State o

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Ultra-nationalism; racism; imperialism; decisionism

Single-party; authoritarian; repressive; charismatic, dictatorial leader

Society/Economy o

Private ownership with strong government control; economic planning; national autarky; corporatism; bio-politics

Autarky - Self-sufficiency

Bio-politics - biologically based concept of nationhood

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Fascists themselves claimed they constituted a single movement, or family of movements

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Marxists claimed that fascism was the logical final phase of all capitalist regimes before their collapse o

1924 World Congress of the Communist International: Fascism as world enemy

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Cultural turn: Distinctive fascist ideology/culture; centrality of nation and modernity

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Fascism had common causes and symptoms but its precise meaning depended on specific national conditions

Generic causes:
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Fascism as a product of the inter-war crisis: o

De-stabilisation of the international order after 1918

o

De-mobilisation after first mass war remains partial (militarisation of street politics and of political language; stab in the back myth/mutilated victory)

o

Boom and bust cycles, global economic shocks

o

Radicalisation of socialism, revolutionary unrest in most European countries, successful establishment of Bolshevik regime in Russia

o

Apparent failure of liberal governments to deal with these problems and threats

Italy - Home of Fascism:
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1919: Il manifesto dei fasci di combattimento

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