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Fascism Revision Notes

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Fascism Revision Revision

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Fascism Lecture: Definitions of Fascism:

Ideology o


State o


Ultra-nationalism; racism; imperialism; decisionism

Single-party; authoritarian; repressive; charismatic, dictatorial leader

Society/Economy o

Private ownership with strong government control; economic planning; national autarky; corporatism; bio-politics

Autarky - Self-sufficiency

Bio-politics - biologically based concept of nationhood


Fascists themselves claimed they constituted a single movement, or family of movements


Marxists claimed that fascism was the logical final phase of all capitalist regimes before their collapse o

1924 World Congress of the Communist International: Fascism as world enemy


Cultural turn: Distinctive fascist ideology/culture; centrality of nation and modernity


Fascism had common causes and symptoms but its precise meaning depended on specific national conditions

Generic causes:

Fascism as a product of the inter-war crisis: o

De-stabilisation of the international order after 1918


De-mobilisation after first mass war remains partial (militarisation of street politics and of political language; stab in the back myth/mutilated victory)


Boom and bust cycles, global economic shocks


Radicalisation of socialism, revolutionary unrest in most European countries, successful establishment of Bolshevik regime in Russia


Apparent failure of liberal governments to deal with these problems and threats

Italy - Home of Fascism:

1919: Il manifesto dei fasci di combattimento

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