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Fascism Lecture: Definitions of Fascism:Ideology oState oUltra-nationalism; racism; imperialism; decisionism
Single-party; authoritarian; repressive; charismatic, dictatorial leader
Private ownership with strong government control; economic planning; national autarky; corporatism; bio-politicsAutarky - Self-sufficiencyBio-politics - biologically based concept of nationhoodFascists themselves claimed they constituted a single movement, or family of movementsMarxists claimed that fascism was the logical final phase of all capitalist regimes before their collapse o
1924 World Congress of the Communist International: Fascism as world enemyCultural turn: Distinctive fascist ideology/culture; centrality of nation and modernityFascism had common causes and symptoms but its precise meaning depended on specific national conditions
Generic causes:Fascism as a product of the inter-war crisis: o
De-stabilisation of the international order after 1918
De-mobilisation after first mass war remains partial (militarisation of street politics and of political language; stab in the back myth/mutilated victory)
Boom and bust cycles, global economic shocks
Radicalisation of socialism, revolutionary unrest in most European countries, successful establishment of Bolshevik regime in Russia
Apparent failure of liberal governments to deal with these problems and threats
Italy - Home of Fascism:1919: Il manifesto dei fasci di combattimento
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