This is an extract of our Modernity And The Wider World Revision document, which we sell as part of our Roads to Modernity 1789-1945 Notes collection written by the top tier of University Of Nottingham students.
The following is a more accessble plain text extract of the PDF sample above, taken from our Roads to Modernity 1789-1945 Notes. Due to the challenges of extracting text from PDFs, it will have odd formatting:
Modernity and the Wider World: East Asia Lecture: The Tribute System:China was surrounded by vassal states all whom paid homage to the Qing dynastyEuropeans were 'allowed' in East Asia by the three major powers China, Japan and Koreao
The British had trade agreements with China and extensive control over India
Portuguese had Macau
Dutch had a trading port in Japan
However with the Russian empire expanding southwards in search of a port with year-round access to the sea, the British moving up through the South China sea and the USA expanding from the East, the Tribute system failed
The Treaty Port system:After the first opium war 1839-42 Britain gained control of Hong Kong and negotiated the opening of five treaty ports in which British merchants were permitted to trade with Chinese merchantsAmerican general Perry established the opening of treaty ports in Japan1860s saw the establishment of treaty ports in Korea1870s more treaty ports open in China oSpread into rivers and begin to dominate trade
The ports were a result of o
'Unequal treaties'Often the result of a military defeat; allowed European powers to impose unfair regulations on the East Asian powersThese treaties gave preferential treatment to European merchants
'Gunboat diplomacy'Threat of military action and Western military superiority forced the Asian powers to sign unequal treaties
The Challenge of the West - China:The English East India Company began to produce excess opium in India and imported it illegally to ChinaThe Canton system
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