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General History X Summary Notes

History Notes > General History X: Europe 1715-99 Notes

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Contents'

!
Enlightenment' Absolutism' Parlements' French'Finance' Jansenism' The'Terror' Poland' International'Relations' Population' Prices' Urbanisation' Agriculture' Industry' Commerce' Society' Jesuits' Jansenists'v.'Jesuits' Women' Childhood'and'Family' Education' The'Ottoman'Empire' Ottoman'Military' Other'

!
Timeline

Enlightenment'

! Roy$Porter$)$Enlightenment$was$'necessarily$rather$amorphous$+$diverse'$
*> Liberation$of$human$mind$from$prevalent$dogmatic$state$of$ignorance$
*> Radicalism$=>$break$from$Biblical$understanding$of$man,$society$+$nature$
*> Yet$wider$Enlightenment$)$part$of$ancien$regime$+$less$radical$

! Porter$)$2$tier$religion$
*> 'simple,$pure,$rational$religion$for$the$elite$+$a$$melodramatic$faith$to$regulate$
the$minds$+$hearts$of$the$plebs'$

! Isaiah$Berlin$)$popularised$concept$of$the$Counter)Enlightenment$
*> Associated$with$Germany$)$relativist,$anti)rationalist,$vitalist$+$organic$

! Jonathan$Israel$)$ideas$caused$changes$=>$revolutions$
*> Rejects$view$of$revolutionary$ideas$as$a$by)product$of$social$+$economic$
transformations$

- Only$an$intellectual$interpretation$can$adequately$explain$the$radical$
break$with$ancien&regime$society$
*> Until$the$1650s$)$Western$civilisation$'was$based$on$a$largely$shared$core$of$
faith,$tradition$+$authority'$
*> 2/2$C17th$)$'a$general$process$of$rationalisation$+$secularisation$set$in$which$
rapidly$overthrew$theology's$age)old$hegemony$in$the$world$of$study'$=>$
'escalating$contest$between$faith$+$incredulity'$

! Israel$)$political$form$of$the$radical$Enlightenment$
*> 'democracy;$racial$+$sexual$equality:$individual$liberty$of$lifestyle;$full$freedom$
of$thought,$expression$+$the$press;$eradication$of$religious$authority$from$the$
legislative$process$+$education;$+$a$full$separation$of$church$+$state'$
*> Moderate$mainstream$was$inherently$undemocratic,$anti)egalitarian$+$
reluctant$to$concede$full$toleration$

! Israel$)$1650)1750$Spinoza$was$'the$chief$challenger$of$the$fundamentals$of$revealed$
religion,$received$ideas,$tradition,$morality$+$what$was$everywhere$regarded,$in$
absolutists$+$non$absolutists$states$alike,$as$divinely$constituted$political$authority'$
*> 'Compared$to$Spinoza$+$Bayle,$no$other$writer$had$an$even$remotely$
comparable$importance$as$a$perceived$originator$+$author$of$radical$ideas'$

! Dorinda$Outram$)$comprised$'many$different$paths,$varying$in$time$+$geography,$to$the$
common$goals$of$progress,$of$tolerance$+$the$removal$of$abuses$in$Church$+$state$
*> 'Enlightenment$was$a$desire$for$human$affairs$to$be$guided$by$rationality$
rather$than$by$faith,$superstition$or$revelation;$a$belief$in$the$power$of$human$
reason$to$change$society$+$liberate$the$individual$from$the$restraints$of$custom$
or$arbitrary$authority;$all$backed$up$by$a$world$view$increasingly$validated$by$
science$rather$than$by$religion$or$tradition'$

! Jurgen$Habermas$)$social$conditions$for$Enlightenment$to$be$spread$
*> 'bourgeois$public$sphere'$)$'realm$of$communication$marked$by$new$arenas$of$
debate,$more$open$+$accessible$forms$of$urban$public$space$+$sociability$+$an$
explosion$of$print$culture'$
*> Egalitarian$

*> Discussed$the$domain$of$'common$concern'$
*> Argument$founded$on$reason$
*> Rise$of$modern$nation$state$+$capitalism$

!
!
!
!

Robert$Darnton$)$literacy$rates$in$France$doubled$over$the$C18th$
Rolf$Engelsing$)$Reading$Revolution$after$1750$
Dena$Goodman$)$women$were$salonnieres$in$French$salons$
Peter$Gay$)$only$one$Enlightenment$=>$group$who$knew$each$other$
*> High$Enlightenment$critical$of$religion$etc$
*> Yet$what$of$a$'Low$Enlightenment'?$)$Enlightenment$mood$

- Still$religion$
- Smaller$leadership$=>$radicalism$
- Wider$Enlightenment$=>$less$radical$)$part$of$ancien$regime$rather$than$
against$it$

! Liberation$of$human$mind$v.$arrogant$rationalism$undermining$society$
! Thomas$Munck$)$not$just$enlightenment$but$conditions$for$widespread$enlightening$
*> Enlightenment$is$an$attitude$of$the$mind$rather$than$a$coherent$set$of$beliefs$
*> Religion$+$enlightenment$are$not$mutually$exclusive$

!
!

*> Jansenists$were$largely$independent$of$the$philosophes$)$yet$were$at$least$as$
influential$in$political$terms$

! Paris$1751)72$)$Encylopedie$=>$28$volumes$
*> Philosophe$)$one$who$'trampling$on$prejudice,$tradition,$universal$consent,$
authority,$in$a$word$all$that$enslaves$most$minds,$dares$to$think$for$himself'&

! Frederick$the$Great$(Prussia$1740)86)$
*> Invited$Voltaire$to$live$in$his$palace$
*> 'My$principal$occupation$is$to$combat$ignorance$+$prejudice$.$.$.$to$enlighten$
minds,$cultivate$morality$+$to$make$people$as$happy$as$it$suits$human$nature,$+$
as$the$means$at$my$disposal$permit'$

! Marquis$de$Condorcet$)$rights$of$women$+$racial$equality$
! Fontanelle$+$Beverland$)$gendered$nature$of$society$+$intellectual$capacities$of$women$
! William$Godwin$)$Inquiry&Concerning&Political&Justice$(1793)$
*> Marriage$)$form$of$legal$prostitution$
*> Orchestras$+$theatre$)$enforced$conformity$+$compromised$individuality$

! Rousseau$)$sexual$division$of$labour$=>$C19th$'separate$spheres'$
! Spinoza$+$Bayle$)$sexual$pleasure$in$men$+$women$is$a$good$thing$
! Voltaire$)$most$prefer$direction$by$authority$=>$~90%$do$not$deserve$to$be$enlightened$
*> Condemned$'le$materialisme'$or$'le$Spinosisme'$
*> Ridiculed$Bible$+$sacraments$+$favoured$Muslims$+$pagans$against$Christians$
*> Not$interested$in$enlightening$the$man$in$the$street,$the$coachman$or$other$
'servants'$

! Turgot$)$limited$toleration$+$economic$development$within$the$existing$order$
! Boulainvilliers$)$aristocratic$republicanism$
! Du$Marsais$+$Meslier$)$democratic$republicanism$based$on$Spinozist$premises$
*> Du$Marsais$)$civil$society$is$the$only$divinity$on$earth$
*> Yet$Spinoza$was$against$any$form$of$revolution$=>$tyranny$

- Although$he$was$against$divine$right$monarchy$
! Spinoza,$Bayle,$Rousseau$+$Diderot$)$'common$good'$as$the$basis$for$secular$society$
! Montesquieu$+$Ferguson$)$aristocracy$+$hierarchy$as$a$necessity$
*> Montesquieu$)$independent$nobility$=>$good$public$service$

! Voltaire$)$'I$value$poetry$only$insofar$as$it$is$the$ornament$of$reason'$
!
!

!
!

!
!

*> Against$later$ideas$of$the$'sublime'$
Voltaire$)$famous$campaign$for$Jean$Calas$in$1762$for$murder$of$Catholic)convert$son$
Mid)18th$century$appearance$of$the$word$'citizen'$)$polemical$
*> Citizenship$)$participation$in$civil$society$=>$did$not$need$to$be$a$good$Catholic$
to$be$a$virtuous$citizen$
- Affected$Jansenists$+$Huguenots$
Montesquieu$)$Persian&Letters&(1721)$
*> Interest$in$other$nations$and$cultures$
Voltaire$)$enormous$network$of$famous$correspondents$

! Pierre$Bayle$)$separation$between$science$+$religion$
! Spinoza$)$'God$is,$in$relation$to$his$effects$or$creatures$no$other$than$an$immanent$cause'$
*> Divine$Providence$is$'nothing$but$the$striving$we$find$both$in$Nature$as$a$whole$
+$in$particular$things'$
*> Israel$)$one$substance,$body$+$soul$=>$society$would$be$less$manipulated$by$
religion$

- Allied$with$Socinianism$+$Unitarianism$)$spread$dramatically$
- 2$substance$)$balance$between$reason$+$tradition$=>$less$radical$

Reason$is$a$gift$of$God$

- Enlighten$everyone$v.$enlighten$few$(Voltaire$+$Frederick$the$Great)$
! Baron$d'Holbach$)$Systeme&de&la&nature$(1770)$=>$materialistic$pantheism$
*> Kings$were$the$'cause$of$the$ill$education$of$their$subjects'$

! Voltaire$attacked$Spinoza,$d'Holbach$+$Diderot$
*> Israel$)$war$after$1770$=>$open$+$irreparable$split$in$the$Enlightenment$
*> Lack$of$court$advocates$for$radical$=>$flooded$the$new$reading$public$with$
clandestine$publications$

! Bayle$)$'paradox$of$the$virtuous$atheist'$=>$could$form$a$society$
*> Montesquieu$+$Voltaire$)$did$not$support$this$yet$argued$for$religious$toleration$

- Liberty$of$conscience$as$a$natural$right$
! 1775$)$National$Assembly$of$the$Clergy$

*> 'the$unbelievers$from$a$sect$.$.$.$united$in$the$revolt$against$the$authority$of$
divine$revelation'$

! Rousseau's$Emile$(1762)$)$'Profession$of$faith$of$a$Savoyard$vicar'$
*> Formally$condemned$in$Geneva$+$burned$
*> Yet$saw$in$nature$an$external$intelligence$

! Marquis$de$Sade$)$Dialogue&between&a&Priest&and&a&Dying&Man$(1782)$
! La$Mettrie$)$l'Homme&machine$
*> Explains$man's$nature$+$behaviour$in$purely$materialist$terms$
*> Morality$from$political$sphere$)$no$supernatural$basis$

- Sometimes$seen$as$most$extreme$materialist$
! d'Holbach$)$chains$of$error$+$ignorance$=>$science,$reason$+$truth$

!

Hume$(1751)$)$Enquiry&Concerning&the&Principles&of&Morals$
*> Importance$of$duty$+$virtue$

! Deism$+$secular$approach$to$morality$
! Rousseau$)$'sensibility'$+$'inner$sentiment'$
*> La$Novelle$Heloise$)$70$editions$in$France$by$1789$
*> Goethe$)$The&Sorrows&of&Young&Werther$(1774)$=>$themes$of$alienation,$self) expression$+$the$sublime$
*> The&Social&Contract$)$society$was$a$moral$entity$=>$virtue$

- Influenced$Robespierre$=>$Terror$
! 1787$)$Louis$XVI$gave$limited$civil$status$to$French$Huguenots$=>$seen$by$many$Catholics$
as$$joint$Protestant)philosophe$plot$
*> Idea$of$philosophes$destroying$spiritual$basis$of$monarchy$

! Locke$)$tabula$rasa$
! Some$philosophes$advocated$a$civil$religion$to$keep$society$in$order$e.g.$Rousseau$

!
!

*> Merely$outward$conformity&

! Encylopedie$)$only$~4,000$subscribers&
! Bibliothequre&Bleue$)$cheaply$produced$books$in$Troyes,$France$
*> Lower$class$participation$in$Enlightenment$sociability&

! Newly$discovered$Tahiti$
*> 1768$)$Louis$Bougainville$=>$lack$of$private$property$+$Christian$sexual$taboos$
*> Diderot$)$free$of$despotism$+$private$property$

- 'Noble$savages'$who$had$'no$king,$no$magistrate,$no$priest,$no$laws,$no$
'mine'$+$'thine''$
*> Captain$Cook$)$imputed$primitivism$=>$similar$society$+$morality$

- Still$Enlightenment$values$)$Montesquieu$=>$seek$to$understand$others$
in$context$of$their$circumstances$

- How$far$is$everything$in$the$18th$century$Enlightenment?$
! Voltaire$+$Hume$)$universality$of$human$nature$

! Pornographic$novels$of$Marquis$de$Sade$)$are$there$rules$of$conduct?$
! Daniel$Defoe's$Robinson&Crusoe$)$man$having$to$reinvent$civilisation$
! Raynal$)$Histoire&Philosophique$(1770)$
*> Culminating$literary$blow$to$the$ancien&regime&

! Rousseau$(1746)$)$'Everything$I$observe$is$sowing$the$seeds$of$a$revolution$that$will$
inevitably$come$to$pass$.$.$.$enlightenment$has$spread$so$widely$that$it$will$burst$forth$at$
the$first$opportunity$+$then$there$will$be$a$grand$commotion'$

! Pombal$)$officially)sanctioned$'enlightenment'$in$Portugal$+$Brazil$
*> Fundamental$administrative,$educational,$economic$+$ecclesiastical$reforms$
*> Reason$+$secularisation$
*> Yet$mainly$for$enhancing$autocracy$

!
!
!
!

Adam$Smith$)$Wealth&of&Nations$(1776)$
Comparisons$to$England$+$Dutch$tolerance$
Joseph$II's$abolition$of$serfdom$in$the$Austrian$Empire$
Frederick$the$Great$was$an$unbeliever$)$encouraged$toleration$in$Prussia$=>$'everyone$
must$be$allowed$to$choose$his$own$road$to$salvation'$

! Lack$of$toleration$in$France$)$revocation$of$Edict$of$Nantes$in$1685$
! Prize$essay$competitions$)$2,000$contests$=>$50$won$by$women

Absolutism'

! Bodin$)$established$idea$of$sovereignty$=>$not$guided$by$laws$but$by$morality$
*> Montesquieu$)$English$separation$of$legislative,$executive$+$judiciary$powers$

- France$does$not$have$this$=>$despotism$
- Also$lacks$intermediary$power$of$the$nobles$
! Best$selling$book$in$18th$century$France$)$The&Adventures&of&Telemachus&
*> Treatise$on$how$to$be$a$good$king$

! Louis$XIV$had$presented$himself$as$controlling$the$Church$
! Another$source$for$kingly$authority$is$Machiavelli$)$reason$of$state$
*> Louis$XIV$combined$this$with$divine$right$
*> 'L'etat,$c'est$moi'$
*> Loyalty$of$ministers$)$only$had$to$disgrace$3$over$54$years$
*> Never$appointed$members$of$Court$aristocracy$to$secretary$of$state$

- Yet$after$1750$)$Louis$XV$regularly$appointed$them$=>$factionalism$
! Pays$d'etats$(local$estates$e.g.$Burgundy$+$Languedoc)$v.$pays$d'elections$

!

18th$century$)$neither$Louis$XV$or$Louis$XVI$made$more$than$a$handful$of$trips$beyond$
the$lIe)de)France$=>$failed$to$cultivate$public$affection$

! Estates$General$of$1614$was$the$last$to$meet$before$1789$
*> Ability$to$govern$without$a$national$representative$body$was$a$defining$feature$
of$absolute$monarchy$

! Legislation$followed$by$'for$such$is$our$pleasure'$
! 1660)1789$golden$age$of$the$intendants$)$commissioners$appointed$by$the$king$
!

Regent$Duke$de$Choiseul$died$prematurely$in$December$1723$
*> Most$trouble)free$regency$in$France's$history$

!

Fleury$died$in$1743$)$Louis$was$32$
*> Chose$not$to$replace$Fleury$)$precedent$of$1661$)>$announced$that$he$would$
rule$as$his$own$first$minister$

!

Louis$XV$(1766)$)$'in$my$person$alone$resides$sovereign$power$.$.$.$I$alone$possess$
complete$and$untrammelled$legislative$authority'$

!
!

Decade$of$conflict$in$1750s$had$changed$public$perceptions$

$

Ministers$and$policies$frequently$changed$
~$Lack$of$confidence$and$respect$from$elites$

!
!

Loss$of$public$esteem$for$the$king$)$insults$and$graffiti$)>$some$regicidal$

$

~$Political$crisis$provoked$by$bed$of$justice$the$previous$December$

$

~$Damiens,$a$deranged$domestic$servant,$tried$to$assassinate$the$king$

!
!
!
!

Still$not$prepared$for$the$shock$of$5$January$1757$

Disastrous$Seven$Years$War$)$peace$in$1763$
Enthusiasm$for$accession$of$Louis$XV$)$depleted$by$1774$
J.$Swann$)$Louis$XV$reigned$but$never$ruled$=>$drift,$discord$+$instability$
M.$Price$)$major$loss$in$confidence$of$monarchy$after$coup$of$1771$=>$Louis$XVI$had$to$
deal$with$this$

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