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British History Ii Summary Notes

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Contents


!

Rulers+

Jews+

Administration+

Nationalism+

Finance+

Wales+

Foreign+Policy+

Ireland+

Norman+Conquest+

Scotland+

William+Rufus+(1087?1100)+

Population+

Henry+I+(1100?35)+

Prices+

Stephen+(1135?41+++1142?54)+

Agriculture+and+Land+

Henry+II+(1154?89)+

Industry+

John+

Commerce+

Magna+Carta+

Urbanisation+

Henry+III+

Inflation+and+Monetisation+

Edward+I+

Feudalism+

Parliament+

Peasants+

Justice+

Aristocracy+

Renaissance+and+Written+Record+

Gentry+

Religion+

Military+

Reform+

Chivalry+

Monasteries+and+Parishes+

Gender+and+Family+

Popular+Belief+

Timeline


!

Rulers+

1042?66+++Edward+the+Confessor+
! ~!Brought!up!in!Normandy!+!had!close!alliance!with!area!
! !
~!Seems!likely!that!he!promised!the!crown!to!Duke!William!of!Normandy!in!1051!

!

1066+++Harold+II+
! ~!Had!been!the!power!behind!Edward!since!1055!C!elected!King!by!most!of!the!ruling!classes!

!

1066?87+++William+I+the+Conqueror+
! ~!'Inherited'!the!crown!as!heir!to!Edward!
! ~!1066!!!!Battle!of!Hastings!
! ~!Suppressed!English!rebellions!until!1071!
! ~!1070C85!!!Conquest!of!much!of!Wales!

!

1087?1100+++William+II,+Rufus+
! ~!Had!sternness!of!father!but!not!his!sense!of!justice!C!court!was!renowned!for!its!brutality!
! +!licentiousness!
! ~!Often!in!conflict!with!the!church!
! ~!Major!rebellions!in!1088!+!1095!C!succeeded!in!crushing!them!due!to!support!of!nobility!
! ~!Relied!on!worldly!clerk!Ranulf!Flambard!

!

1100?35+++Henry+I+
! ~!As!able!as!brother!but!with!a!keen!sense!of!justice!
! ~!Growth!in!royal!administration!
! ~!First!7!years!spent!protecting!England!
! ~!Conquered!Normandy!from!his!eldest!brother!Duke!Robert!
! ~!Looked!secure!in!England!+!on!the!Continent!until!1120!when!his!only!legitimate!son!! +!
heir!was!killed!in!a!naval!tragedy!
! ~!Settled!the!Welsh!rebellion!of!his!brother's!reign!+!fortified!Wales!with!many!castles!
! ~!End!of!the!reign!was!dominated!by!a!succession!crisis!C!Henry!forced!his!barons!to!support!
! his!daughter!Matilda!as!heir!

!

1135?41+++Stephen+
! ~!Favourite!nephew!of!Henry!I!
! ~!Broke!his!oath!+!assumed!kingship!with!assent!of!barons!of!England!+!Normandy!
! ~!Seen!to!have!a!'soft'!character!C!not!good!for!kingship!
! ~!War!from!1136!

!

1141?42+++Empress+Matilda+
! ~!Legitimate!daughter!of!Henry!I!
! ~!1139!!!Half!brother!Earl!Robert!of!Gloucester!+!Miles!Gloucester!rebelled!against!King!!
Stephen!
! ~!Stephen!was!defeated!+!captured!in!February!1141!

! ~!Matilda!was!the!widow!of!the!Emperor!of!Germany!C!reigned!England!in!illCtemper!+!in!
! a!brutal!manner!
! !
~!Chased!out!of!London!+!by!the!end!of!1142!she!had!lost!much!control!
! ~!1144!!!Normandy!was!taken!from!Stephen!my!Matilda's!second!husband!Geoffrey!of!!
Anjou!for!their!son!Henry!

!

1142?54+++Stephen+
! ~!By!1147!the!civil!war!in!England!had!effectively!ended!
! !
~!Most!important!parts!of!England!were!under!his!ineffectual!rule!
! ~!1153!!!Duke!Henry!of!Normandy,!son!of!Matilda,!invaded!the!kingdom!+!was!recognised!
! as!Stephen's!heir!in!place!of!his!2!sons,!Eustace!+!William!

!

1154?89+++Henry+II+
! ~!Ruled!Empire!of!Britain,!Normandy,!Anjou,!Maine,!Poitou!+!Aquitaine!with!an!iron!rod!
! ~!First!king!of!England!to!add!Ireland!to!his!domains!
! ~!Seen!as!founder!of!English!common!law!
! ~!Dominated!Western!Christendom!as!most!influential!monarch!of!the!day!
! ~!Seriously!challenged!by!the!Thomas!a!Becket!murder!+!subsequent!rebellion!of!his!sons!
! in!1173C74!
! ~!Died!at!Chinon!in!summer!1189!

!

1189?99+++Richard+I+the+Lionheart+
! ~!Second!+!eldest!surviving!son!of!Henry!II!
! ~!Little!interest!in!Britain!except!to!finance!his!Middle!Eastern!+!Continental!ambitions!
! ~!As!soon!as!he!succeeded!his!father!he!began!selling!the!offices!of!state!to!raise!money!
! ~!England!was!run!by!a!series!of!Justiciars!who!in!effect!were!regents!
! ~!Only!returned!to!his!kingdom!once!in!1194!to!put!down!the!rebellion!of!his!brother!John!
! +!to!be!crowned!a!second!time!
! ~!Spent!the!rest!of!his!reign!in!incessant!wars!in!France!

!

1199?1216+++John,+Lackland,+Softsword+
! ~!Youngest!son!of!Henry!II!
! ~!1200C04!increasingly!losing!campaigns!to!hold!onto!Continental!possessions!
! ~!Refined!government!in!England!
! ~!Instrumental!in!the!spread!of!literacy!C!despite!bad!reputation,!was!one!of!the!most!!
! learned!English!kings!
! ~!Keen!historian!+!lawgiver!C!yet!this!keen!sense!of!involvement!in!the!running!of!the!!
! kingdom!antagonised!the!baronage!=>!privileges!were!under!threat!
! ~!Magna!Carta!was!the!work!of!King!John!+!his!impressive!legal!advisers!
! ~!1216!!!Refused!to!fight!invading!French!army!on!the!coast!C!remembered!1066!
! !
~!Refusal!to!risk!all!in!one!battle!=>!long!civil!war!1216C18!
! ~!Died!of!dysentery!in!October!1216!after!the!loss!of!his!treasure!in!the!Wash!

!

1216?72+++Henry+III+
! ~!Came!to!the!throne!aged!only!7!years!old!
! ~!Under!tutelage!or!regency!of!the!old!warrior!William!Marshall!

! ~!First!years!saw!the!country!brought!back!to!his!fealty!C!by!1220!most!of!the!l+!+!even!!
Wales!was!peaceful!
! ~!Death!of!Earl!Marshall!did!not!change!government!C!Henry!was!a!weak!man!+!always!!
intended!to!appoint!'strong!men'!to!run!the!country!
! ~!Did!not!rule!as!the!barons!thought!fit!=>!rebellions!C!1233C34!was!one!of!the!worst!
! ~!Towards!the!end!of!the!1250s!this!discontent!was!focused!in!the!Marches!of!Wales!C!!
Marchers!had!been!having!a!hard!time!due!to!the!attentions!of!Llywelyn!ap!Gruffydd!
! ~!1258!!!Mad!Parliament!of!Oxford!C!barons,!led!by!the!earls!of!Gloucester!+!Leicester,!!
commenced!the!reformation!of!the!government!=>!shackled!the!absolute!monarchy!of!!
Henry!III!+!his!predecessors!with!a!democratically!elected!council!
! !
~!New!design!worked!sporadically!until!1263!when!those!barons!who!did!not!want!
! !
the!burden!of!running!the!country!helped!Henry!to!'regain!his!independence'!
! !
!
~!Led!to!the!bloody!Barons'!War!which!lasted!until!1266!C!by!this!time!!
! !
!
Henry!had!been!effectively!superseded!in!the!running!of!the!country!by!his!
! !
!
eldest!son!+!heir,!the!Lord!Edward!
! ~!Henry!was!wounded!at!the!battle!of!Evesham!in!August!1265!C!allowed!Edward!to!install!a!
! regency!government!when!he!left!the!country!in!1270!on!crusade!
! !
~!Died!in!1272!leaving!the!government!of!the!kingdom!in!the!hands!of!the!regency!
! !
council!until!the!return!of!Edward!2!years!later!

!

1272?1307+++Edward+I,+The+Hammer+of+the+Scots+
! ~!Different!character!from!Henry!+!soon!changed!the!country!
! ~!1276C77!!!Brought!Llywelyn!ap!Gruffydd!to!heel!
! ~!Put!finances!of!the!country!back!in!order!after!the!disasters!of!the!previous!reign!
! ~!1282!!!Surprised!by!a!Welsh!revolt!C!by!April!1283!he!had!subjugated!the!whole!of!Wales,!
! killed!Llywelyn!+!captured!his!brother!Dafydd!
! !
~!Further!revolts!in!Wales!in!1287!+!1295!
! ~!Edward!conquered!Wales!+!began!a!massive!castle!building!project!
! ~!Towards!the!end!of!the!reign,!he!became!increasingly!embroiled!in!bringing!Scotland!!
under!his!direct!rule!C!wanted!to!conquer!it!like!Wales!
! ~!The!Welsh!campaigns!had!been!a!heavy!drain!on!the!Exchequer!=>!more!+!more!unjust!
! taxes!+!he!antagonised!his!baronage!
! !
~!Conquest!of!Scotland!failed!largely!because!of!Edward's!success!in!Wales!C!he!had!
! !
spent!his!money!=>!no!military!masterpieces!like!Carnarfon!or!Harlech!in!Scotland!C!
! !
had!to!content!himself!with!wooden!peels!e.g.!Linlithgow!

!

1307?27+++Edward+II+
! ~!Weak!successor!to!Edward!I!C!much!more!resembled!his!grandfather!
! ~!Lived!as!a!rustic!on!his!own!play!farm!C!government!of!the!kingdom!was!left!to!favourites!
! ~!Reign!was!punctuated!by!sporadic!explosions!among!discontented!baronage!
! ~!Rise!of!a!new!movement!called!the!Ordainers!who!were,!in!many!respects,!descendants!of!
! the!reformers!of!1258!
! !
~!The!Ordainers!were!decisively!defeated!in!1322!but!Edward!failed!to!capitalise!on!
! !
his!success!C!was!overthrown!by!his!queen!+!her!paramour!=>!dungeons!of!!
! !
Berkeley!Castle!

!

!
1327?77+++Edward+III+
! ~!Initially!under!the!tutelage!of!his!mother!+!her!lover!Roger!Mortimer!of!Wigmore!
! !
~!1330!!!seized!Mortimer!+!had!him!executed!
! !
~!With!this,!he!reCopened!the!war!against!Scotland!+!then!against!France!C!defeat!
! !
of!Scotland!was!not!possible!whilst!they!received!French!aid!=>!helped!to!start!the!
! !
100!Years!War!which!was!a!major!feature!of!the!reign!
! ~!Reformed!the!coinage!in!order!to!finance!the!war!
! ~!Increasingly!relied!upon!parliament!to!organise!the!economy!+!deal!with!law!+!order!

!

Administration+

! Clanchy!C!From%Memory%to%Written%Record!
‣ Development!of!literate!ways!of!thinking!C!as!important!as!printing!
‣ Major!importance!of!12th!century!C!'Practical!business!was!the!foundation!of!
this!new!literacy'!
‣ Domesday!+!Edward!Is!Quo%Warranto!(1279)!C!countrywide!investigations!with!
written!records!=>!no!other!European!state!has!this!

- Edward!I!was!most!record!conscious!king!
‣ More!reading!than!writing!C!lay!literacy!grew!out!of!bureaucracy!

- Lesser!bureaucracies!in!shires!e.g.!Richard!Hotot's!estate!book!in!
Northamptonshire!

- County!business!of!knights!+!peasants!as!manorial!reeves!
‣ Books!of!Hours!
‣ Law!in!vernacular!
‣ French!first!developed!as!a!written!language!in!England!(not!France)!
‣ By!1260s!C!countess!of!Leicester!was!keeping!diary!of!daily!expenditure!

! Richard!Southern!C!John!of!Salisbury's!Policraticus,!the!Dialogue%of%the%Exchequer!+!law!
book!Glanvill!are!all!products!of!'the!intellectual!stimulus!provided!by!the!work!of!
government!in!the!time!of!Henry!II'!
‣ Part!of!'routine!of!government'!

!

! Surviving!charters!+!writs!
‣ William!I!C!21!years!!=>!300!charters!+!writs!
‣ Rufus!C!13!years!=>!200!
‣ Henry!I!C!35!years!=>!1,500!

- Impressive!increase!
‣ Stephen!C!19!years!=>!700!

- Not!a!noticeable!decrease!
! AngloCSaxon!period!C!only!~2k!writs!+!charters!survive!
‣ 13th!century!C!tens!of!thousands!

- As!many!as!8!million!charters!for!13th!century!smallholders!
! Seals!
‣ Edward!the!Confessor!C!only!the!king!had!a!seal!
‣ C13th!C!Even!serfs!were!required!by!law!to!have!a!seal!

! Sealing!wax!used!per!week!by!Chancery!
‣ Late!1220s!C!3.63lb!
‣ Late!1260s!C!31.9lb!

! Output!of!royal!government!increased!more!than!tenfold!in!the!century!spanning!the!
reigns!of!William!the!Conqueror!+!Henry!II!
‣ Necessitated!the!creation!of!bureaucracy!C!beginnings!can!be!seen!in!Fitz!Neal's!
Dialogue%of%the%Exchequer!(c.1179)!

‣ Hubert!Walter!put!theory!into!practice!(1193C1205)!C!written!record!was!
effectively!extended!to!nearly!every!sphere!of!government!

! 11th/12th!century!court!of!exchequer!C!overlap!with!royal!household!
‣ Viceregal!group!+!rise!of!sheriffs!

! Dialogus!C!forest!has!its!own!laws!based!'on!the!arbitrary!decree!of!the!King'!
‣ Yet!there!are!'established!laws!of!the!Exchequer'!

! By!Edward!I's!reign!serfs!possessed!seals!to!sign!their!names!+!they!recorded!their!
property!transactions!in!writing!

! Aethelred!C!local!bailiffs!became!'shireCreeves'!or!sheriffs!=>!important!
‣ Shire!court!
‣ Danegeld!+!royal!writ!C!pendent!wax!seal!

!
!
!
!
!
!

New!royal!writ!issued!by!Aethelred!or!Cnut!C!new!pendant!wax!seal!
Edward!the!Confessor!C!rolls!listing!hidages!of!shires!+!hundreds!=>!Domesday!
10k!Normans!/!1C2!million!
William!fitz!Stephen!(1170s)!C!London!was!'the!seat!of!the!monarchy!of!England'!
1136!C!earliest!surviving!description!of!the!king's!household,!the!Constitutio%domus%regis!
Hubert!Walter!in!the!1190s!C!plea!rolls,!coroners'!rolls!+!financial!concords!(property!
agreements)!
‣ Also!began!to!keep!ecclesiastical!records!at!Canterbury!
‣ Gave!records!continuing!life!C!extended!written!record!to!nearly!every!sphere!of!
government,!both!central!+!local!

! 1199!C!Chancery!clerks!began!to!systematically!keep!copies!of!documents!
! Chancery!writs!took!a!set!form!
‣ 'Unless!you!do!this,!my!sheriff!shall!have!it!done!sot!hat!I!hear!no!further!
complaint!for!lack!of!justice'!

! Move!of!exchequer!+!treasury!from!Winchester!to!Westminster!
! Issue!of!documents!
‣ 'Indenture!of!retainer'!documents!from!13th!century!yet!evidence!as!early!as!
1100!

!
!
!
!

!
!

Henry!II's!'Roll!of!Ladies,!boys!+!girls'!=>!kept!information!up!to!date!
1274!C!Edward!launched!an!inquiry!into!royal!+!baronial!officials!
1279!C!Edward!I's!Household!Ordinance!
1279!C!new!offence!of!conspiracy!

Finance+

! Prestwich!C!expansion!of!military!coincides!with!rapid!economic!expansion!
! Gerald!of!Wales!C!the!king!was!'a!robber!permanently!on!the!prowl,!always!probing,!
always!looking!for!the!weak!spot!where!there!is!something!for!him!to!steal'!

! Richard!FitzNeal,!bishop!of!London,!Treasurer!of!England!+!author!of!The%Dialogue%of%the%
Exchequer%1170s!C!'the!power!of!princes!fluctuates!according!to!the!ebb!+!flow!of!their!
cash!resources'!

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