History Notes > University Of Oxford History Notes > History of the British Isles II: 1042-1330 Notes

Jews Notes

This is a sample of our (approximately) 13 page long Jews notes, which we sell as part of the History of the British Isles II: 1042-1330 Notes collection, a 1st Class package written at University Of Oxford in 2014 that contains (approximately) 951 pages of notes across 19 different documents.

Learn more about our History of the British Isles II: 1042-1330 Notes

Jews Revision

The following is a plain text extract of the PDF sample above, taken from our History of the British Isles II: 1042-1330 Notes. This text version has had its formatting removed so pay attention to its contents alone rather than its presentation. The version you download will have its original formatting intact and so will be much prettier to look at.

The Edict of Expulsion of 1290

!

! 18 July 1290 -­‐ every professing Jew in England was ordered out of England for ever by

!
!
!
!
!
!
!

Edward I
‣ Around 2k Jews had to flee
‣ Did not return until 400 years later
Little evidence of large settlement until after Conquest
Had lived in Normandy -­‐ Rouen
William of Malmesbury -­‐ Conqueror brought the Jews from Rouen to London
Became indebted to Norman Exchequer
Ostentatious wealth and unconcealed contempt for practices of Christianity
Usurers -­‐ hold over monasteries whose splendid buildings they had financed
Built 'the great Synagogue' close to the Tower of London


!

! Advantage of death of Henry I and accession of Stephen -­‐ weak king and civil war
!
!
!
!

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

!

‣ Fond of Jews => communities in Norwich, Cambridge and Oxford
Henry II -­‐ communities in Lincoln, Northampton, Gloucestershire, Hampshire, Wiltshire
etc.
1159 -­‐ Henry II levied taxes of 200 marks on the Jews of London and other high taxes on
those in Norwich, Lincoln, Cambridge and elsewhere
Henry III (1216-­‐72) -­‐ sizeable Jewish communities
Abraham of Berkhamstead -­‐ one of the richest Jews in England ~1255
‣ Active usurer who had debtors in half the counties of England
‣ Orders issued to sheriffs that debtors pay up within a month of Easter following
or else their chattels would be seized
1264 -­‐ massacres of Jews
‣ Many went to Normandy
By 1276 -­‐ only 2 Jews engaged in money-­‐lending in Exeter
13th century -­‐ permanent residence outside one of the larger towns appears to have
been illegal without the King's license
1237 -­‐ Sheriff of Northamptonshire was instructed to see that no Jew resided outside the
town of Northampton
1266 -­‐ license required for a Canterbury Jew to reside in Sittingbourne
Cases in Plea Rolls
No charter known which allows Jews to reside in certain towns
1275 -­‐ expelled from Cambridge
Could still return to towns when they were expelled -­‐ came on visits
‣ 1274 -­‐ expelled from Bridgnorth, Shropshire
- 'they still have their repair, 3 or 4 days in the week, because they own a
house in the town'
Norwich -­‐ showed necessity of royal protection
‣ Even highest clergy -­‐ Bishop of Norwich, William Turbe, was most active in
prosecuting the charge of ritual murder against the Jews of Norwich
‣ Propagated the cult of the 'boy-­‐martyr'


!

Ritual murder
! 1144 -­‐ 12 year old crucified => St William of Norwich
! 2 mentioned in Winchester in 1192 and 1232

! 1255 -­‐ Little St Hugh of Lincoln
‣ 91 Jews arrested -­‐ 18 were hanged
‣ Henry III personally ordered the investigation
! Close and Patent Rolls record cases at London, Winchester and Oxford
! Many crucifixions


!

Expulsion
! Debtors realised that Jews were in trouble -­‐ refused to honour their debts
! Many Jews had to sell property to meet tax obligations
! Many failed to pay taxes => banished
! 1274 -­‐ Edward returned from the crusades
! 1274 -­‐ Council of Lyons under Pope Gregory X ordered Christians to condemn usury and
those who conducted it
‣ Edward ordered an immediate investigation into practices of Florentine
bankers => then investigated the Jews
! Henry III's policy of restricting Jewish activities and Church's policy of suppressing usury
were combined -­‐ attempt to prevent Jews loaning money at interest
! Robert Grosseteste, Bishop of Lincoln -­‐ idea of turning Jews from usurers and merchants
to material producers and common labourers


!

! 1275 -­‐ Statute of the Jewry



!
!
!
!

!

Usury was made illegal
Jews over 7 years old must wear a yellow badge
Not allowed to live outside certain towns
Jews from the age of 12 must pay an annual tax of 3 pence


!

Continued to secretly practise usury => Edict of Expulsion
Many went overseas or turned to the sale of corn or wool
Many Jews took to clipping the coinage
17 November 1278 -­‐ Jews all over England were arrested in house-­‐to-­‐house searches for
offence of coin-­‐clipping
‣ Around 600 were sent to the Tower -­‐ property confiscated and escheated to the
king
‣ More than 300 were executed
‣ Bury Chronicle -­‐ 'All Jews in England of whatever condition, age or sex were
unexpectedly seized . . . and sent for imprisonment to various castles
throughout England. While they were thus imprisoned, the innermost recesses
of their houses were ransacked'
6 May 1279 -­‐ could settle accounts by paying a fine => ~£16,500


! 1070 -­‐ first written record of Jewish settlement in England
! Attempt made to introduce continental principle that Jews and all their possessions
were the king's property
‣ Clause inserted under Henry I in some manuscripts of the Leges Edwardi
Confessoris
! Anthony Julius -­‐ England became the 'principal promoter, and indeed in some sense the
inventor of literary anti-­‐Semitism'
‣ Stories of ritual murder


!

! Aaron of Lincoln is believed to have been the wealthiest man in 12th century Britain
‣ Windfall to the king at his death in 1186 => 'Aaron's Exchequer'
‣ £15,000 owed by 430 people
‣ Continued until at least 1201
! 1190 -­‐ Richard Malbisse, debtor of Aaron of Lincoln, led an attack on the family of his
agent in York => death of entire Jewish community, 150 people, at York Castle


!

! Anti-­‐Jewish sentiment fostered by the crusades
! Deadly massacres at London and York during the crusades in 1189 and 1190

!

! The Jews of England were considered the property of the Crown, and they had
traditionally been used as a source of cheap loans and easy taxation, in exchange for
royal protection against antisemitism
! The Jews had suffered considerable oppression during the First Barons' War, but during
Henry's early years the community had flourished and became one of the most
prosperous in Europe
‣ This was primarily the result of the stance taken by the regency government,
which took a range of measures to protect the Jews and encourage lending
‣ This was driven by financial self-­‐interest, as they stood to profit considerably
from a strong Jewish community in England
- Counter to the instructions being sent from the Pope, however, who had
laid out strong anti-­‐Jewish measures at the Fourth Lateran Council in
1215
- William Marshal continued with his policy despite complaints from the
Church

!

! In 1239 Henry introduced different policies, possibly trying to imitate those of Louis of
!
!
!
!

France
Jewish leaders across England were imprisoned and forced to pay fines equivalent to a
third of their goods, and any outstanding loans were to be released
Further huge demands for cash followed - £40,000 was demanded in 1244
‣ Around two-­‐thirds was collected within 5 years - destroying the ability of the
Jewish community to lend money commercially
Henry had built the Domus Conversorum in London in 1232 to help convert Jews to
Christianity, and efforts intensified after 1239 -­‐ as many as 10 percent of the Jews in
England had been converted by the late 1250s
Anti-­‐Jewish stories involving tales of child sacrifice flourished in the 1250s and, in
response, Henry passed the Statute of Jewry in 1253, which attempted to segregate
Jews and enforce the wearing of Jewish badges; it remains unclear to what extent this
statute was actually implemented by Henry


!

! 1275 -­‐ coin clipping made a capital offence
! 1278 -­‐ raids on suspected coin clippers
! Edward I increasingly showed anti-­‐Semitism
‣ 1280 -­‐ exclusive toll for Jews on a bridge at Brentford


****************************End Of Sample*****************************

Buy the full version of these notes or essay plans and more in our History of the British Isles II: 1042-1330 Notes.