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Renaissance Notes

History Notes > History of the British Isles II: 1042-1330 Notes

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The$12th$Century$Renaissance Dr#Poleg

? Should'not'omit'Paris'and'Bologna'2'the'British'Isles'are'not'cut'off'from'the'rest'of'the'world
? Southern'2''in'all'this'the'impulse'comes'from'France'and'Italy'
? The'Renaissance'is'a'pan2European'phenomenon
? The'12th'Century'Renaissance'2'the'term'was'coined'by'C.'H.'Haskins'
~'Aimed'to'refute'the'idea'that'the'Middle'Ages'were'the'Dark'Ages ' '
~'Period'between'Antiquity'and'the'15th'Century'Renaissance'2'seen'to'be'a'period' ' ' of'decay ' '
~'15th'Century'Renaissance'disregarded'the'Gothic'and'moved'away'from' ' ' ' Scholasticism '
~'Haskins'thought'that'a'similar'Renaissance'movement'could'be'seen'in'the'12th'century Renaissance'2'not'just'rediscovery'of'ancient'texts'but'also'a'revival'of'culture,'architecture,' law,'jurisprudence,'theology,'architecture,'illuminations'etc.

? Paris'and'Bologna'were'the'2'most'important'centres??

'
~'Paris'2'theology '
~'Bologna'2'law th 12 'Century'Renaissance'is'connected'to'the'Crusades'and'the're2conquest'in'Spain '
~'Greek'knowledge'and'new'arithmetic,'algebra'and'astronomy'knowledge'came'from' ' the'more'advanced'Arabic'culture Greek'knowledge'was'translated'from'the'Arabic'into'Latin'e.g.'Euclid's'Elements Intellectual'knowledge'is'still'very'much'in'monasteries'and'cathedral'schools'at'the'start'of' the'Renaissance Can'extend'Renaissance'from'1077'until'1215 '
~'Gregory'VII'to'Lateran'IV

? Shift'in'the'location'of'knowledge'?'establishment'of'the'first'universities'at'the'end'of'the'period Universities'came'about'at'the'beginning'of'the'13th'century'2'important'legal'status '
~'Centres'of'learning'that'are'not'immediately'connected'to'religion

? Early'12th'century'2'learning'was'traditional'and'Latin
? Arabic'influences'changed'knowledge'
~'New'treatises'on'mathematics'and'astronomy The'way'people'wrote'also'changed '
~'Shift'in'numerals'2'until'then'numerals'were'primarily'Latin'but'as'the'period'progressed' ' there'was'a'move'to'Arabic'numerals ' '
~'Important'new'existence'of'the'number'zero'2'indispensable'for'calculations

? Walcher'of'Malvern'2'combined'religious'life'with'that'of'the'astronomer ' ' '

~'Produced'lunar'tables '
~'These'are'useful'as'they'are'recorded'with'dates'2'can'see'shifts'in'method'e.g.'he' ' began'to'use'an'astrolabe'to'measure'where'stars'are'in'order'to'make'charts

? Alfonsi'2'vast'knowledge'of'science
? First'in'the'Latin'West'to'produce'a'complete'set'of'astronomical'tables

? Scientific'community'in'south2west'England'in'the'1120s'2'Walcher'of'Malvern,'Alfonsi'and'?Adelard'of'Bath Alfonsi'also'compiled'Disciplina'clericalis'2'very'popular'set'of'proverbs Adelard'of'Bath'visited'many'areas'of'Europe They'produced'manuscripts'that'were'made'for'a'scientific'community

? Most'of'the'translation'from'Arabic'to'Latin'took'place'in'Sicily'and'Spain
? The'Church'was'able'to'differentiate'between'Islam'and'Arabic'knowledge'in'science ' ' '

~'Caused'a'problem'in'other'elements'such'as'theology'2'Christian'scholars'had'a'problem' in'that'when'they'looked'at'Hebrew'knowledge,'some'of'it'could'conflict'with'Church' doctrine

? Translation'from'Hebrew'to'Latin'took'place'in'England
? Bilingual'manuscripts'were'produced'in'a'collaboration'between'Christians'and'Jews'e.g.'the'????Hebrew'Latin'Psalter '
~'Part'of'the'Old'Testament'and'important'to'both'Judaism'and'Christianity '
~'3'columns'set'out'2'Jerome's'Latin'translation,'a'further'closer'translation'of'the'Hebrew' ' and'then'a'third'column'of'Hebrew'?'were'interested'in'the'original'text'of'the'psalms There'are'examples'of'working'manuscripts'with'interlinear'notes The'interest'in'Hebrew'scholarship'was'part'of'a'larger'shift'2'rise'of'a'literal'interpretation'of' the'Bible '
~'Had'4'different'ways'of'interpreting'scripture Early'Christianity'2'allegorical'sense'is'the'most'important '
~'12th'century'revival'of'the'literal'sense'2'what'the'author'intended Greater'interest'in'authorial'intention'?'interest'in'Hebrew'versions Typical'of'scholasticism Scholasticism'is'very'important'in'the'12th'century'Renaissance'2'looks'at'multiple'authorities' at'the'same'time'?'see'sources'as'diverse'and'not'necessarily'in'conflict'with'each'other '
~'Maxim'of'bringing'different'sources'together '
~'Many'textbooks'are'written'bringing'sources'together'e.g.'Gratian's'Decretum Rediscovered'Aristotelian'logic'and'used'it'to'harmonise'conflicting'authorities,'especially'in' law'and'theology Clement'of'Llanthony'harmonised'4'different'sources'in'his'Unum0et0quatuor This'method'can'also'be'seen'in'preaching

? Stephen'Langton'embodies'the'12th'Century'Renaissance??

'
~'Studied'in'Paris'1165280 '
~'Teaching'in'Paris '
~'Later'a'Cardinal'and'then'Archbishop'of'Canterbury Numerous'examples'of'English'men'who'reside'and'teach'in'Paris About'a'third'of'all'scholars'in'the'University'of'Paris'are'of'English'origins '
~'Are'then'very'welcome'in'the'English'church 63%'of'the'entourage'of'the'Archbishop'of'Canterbury'by'1200'had'been'in'Paris '
~'Langton'emphasises'an'overall'trend'of'the'link'to'the'Continent Langton'does'much'preaching'2'nicknamed''thunder2tongue' '
~'Sees'himself'as'a'church'reformer '
~'Encountered'bishops'who'did'not'want'him'to'preach'his'modern'reform ' '
~'Find'evidence'of'this'in'his'biblical'commentaries

? Systemisation'of'knowledge'is'a'major'development
? Renaissance'is'not'just'about'new'knowledge'but'about'new'ways'of'understanding'that'????????knowledge,'preserving'it'and'engaging'with'it Law'and'theology'2'brought'together'different'authorities'on'a'single'text'and'led'to'the' development'of'the''glossa0ordinaria' '
~'Influential'new'layout'2'main'text'in'the'middle'with'larger'type,'in'between'the'lines' ' there'are'interlinear'notes'and'then'on'the'margins'there'are'different'authorities' ' commenting'on'the'text'?'new'complex'understanding The'glossa0ordinaria'was'immensely'important'2'complex'layout'to'provide'all'the'knowledge '
~'Began'to'use'footnotes,'asterisks,'stars'etc. Also'began'to'have'universal'divisions'of'text'which'could'be'referred'to'everyone'2'before'the' 12th'century'there'were'no'unified'chapter'divisions'of'the'Bible'so'it'is'difficult'to'refer'to'a' certain'part'of'a'book New'way'of'dividing'a'text'into'smaller'portions '
~'This'layout'of'the'Bible'has'been'used'ever'since Different'notion'of'presenting'and'retaining'knowledge More'and'more'list2making'in'the'later'Middle'Ages Bullet'point'lists'of'authorities Idea'of'division'as'a'way'of'structuring'knowledge'2'each'idea'is'broken'down'into'separate' ideas '
~'Diagrams'a'bit'like'a'tree'with'branches'spreading'outwards De0sex0alis0Cherubim'2'picture'consolidating'ideas'with'each'feather'of'the'angel'representing'a' theological'idea Start'from'a'single'idea'and'then'break'it'down'into'categories'2'division The'influence'of'the'12th'century'Renaissance'also'extended'to'literature Re2deployment'and'enhancement'of'popularity'of'literature'from'pagan'Rome Osbern'Pinnock'2'Panormia0 Rediscovery'of'the'classics'and'new'means'of'historical'narrative Writing'of'history'e.g.'William'of'Malmesbury Also'an'interest'in'the'means'of'governance'and'the'rise'of'bureaucracy'towards'the'end'of'the' 12th'century '
~'John'of'Salisbury'2'writes'on'bureaucracy'in'his'Policraticus The'Dialogus0de0Scaccario'shows'the'workings'of'the'Exchequer'and'also'shows'scholastic' dialogue '
~'Dialogue'between'a'disciple'and'a'master'2'typical'of'Scholasticism ' '
~'Question'and'answer'e.g.''What'is'the'exchequer?'

England'and'the'12th'Century'Renaissance Philippa'Byrne' ' '??
' '?'' ' ' ' '' ' ' ' '' '' '?
'

Coined'in'1927',''12th'Century'Renaissance'
~'In'comparison'to'the'Renaissance'of'the'14th'and'15th'centuries
~'High'culture,'appreciation'of'the'classics'and'the'high'values'of'the'ancient'world' developed'in'1050,1250 Revival'of'classical'learning','dramatic'in'quality'and'quantity Closes'with'the'establishment'of'great'universities'across'Europe Haskins','classics'were'his'inherent'focus'for'finding'the'Renaissance Importance'of'commentaries'on'texts'for'learning'of'rhetoric'and'the'meanings'of'texts
~'Nature'of'virtue
~'How'the'argument'is'presented'and'developed Revival'of'antiquity'and'a're,engagement'with'classical'learning Can'compare'England'to'other'parts'of'Europe Late'11th'and'early'12th'centuries','great'cathedral'libraries'lack'some'basic'texts'of' ancient'learning'such'as'Cicero
~'As'the'century'advances,'they'acquire'these','yet'behind'countries'such'as'France Revision'of'this'argument'by'Benson'and'Constable','standard'book'on'the'subject
~'Renaissance'in'almost'every'aspect'of'cultural'life '
~'Never'really'addresses'the'question'of'what'intellectual'changed'there' ' actually'were'in'the'12th'century '
~'Simply'making'a'survey'of'the'cultural'life'of'the'period','not'showing'what' ' is'distinctive'in'the'12th'century Rise'of'systematic'theology','distinctive
~'Commentaries'on'the'Bible
~'From'the'11th'century'onwards'aimed'to'produce'a'continuous'commentary'on' all'the'Books'of'the'Bible '
~'Previously'only'the'Gospels'and'the'first'5'books
~'New'comprehensiveness'as'opposed'to'the'selections'of'before Cicero'and'Seneca','learning'from'these'could'then'be'applied'to'the'Bible
~'Highest'level'of'study'at'the'University'of'Paris'is'that'of'theology '
~'Needed'a'degree'in'the'liberal'art'of'classics'before'one'could'study'this Theological'summa','begins'with'the'creation'of'the'universe'and'goes'up'to'the'Last' Judgement
~'Tracts'with'questions','objections'and'responses '
~'e.g.'sacraments Definition'of'the'12th'century'Renaissance'by'its'theological'products Southern','described'England'as'a'new'colony'of'the'French'intellectual'empire
~'Continuing'uncertainty'as'to'the'place'of'England'in'High'medieval'Europe

?
' ' ' ' ' '?
' ' ' ' ' 'Issue'of'English'exceptionalism','12th'century'England'was'not'a'nation'of'intellectuals' as'the'Crown'did'not'support'them'to'the'same'extent'as'others'in'Europe
~'Political'culture'was'different','bishops'were'mainly'officeholders'with'a'low' quality'of'learning',>'did'not'need'great'learning'as'others'did'in'Europe
~'e.g.'Thomas'Becket','had'only'elementary'study'of'the'classics'and'low'standard' of'Latin'yet'he'has'a'great'record'in'administrative'service '
~'Compared'to'Bishop'of'Paris'in'1228','had'spent'his'entire'life'in'universities' ' studying'theology'and'had'written'many'treatises If'you'succeed'in'the'English'Church'it'is'in'spite'of'your'learning'rather'than'because'of' it England'could'be'seen'as'not'lesser'but'just'different
~'Not'excelling'in'theology
~'English'achievements'are'supposedly'found'in'the'realm'of'history','specifically' English'talent'from'Bede'and'the'Anglo,Saxon'Chronicle'to'Henry'of'Huntingdon' and'Geoffrey'of'Monmouth '
~'Need'for'histories'following'the'Conquest
~'Lack'of'innovation','record,keeping Was'England'really'so'special'and'different'for'its'historical'endeavours?Grosseteste','benefited'from'unusual'learning'conditions'in'England',>'great'and' different'synthesis'in'his'work3'possible'ways'of'appreciating'the'place'of'England
~'Considering'the'geography'and'development'of'schools
~'Role'of'individuals
~'Textual'evidence'for'the'Renaissance

' ' '?' ' '?
' ' ' ' ' ' '

Colony'of'French'intellectual'empire?
Geographically,'was'England'cut'off?
Abelard'(perhaps'the'greatest'master'of'12th'century'theology)',''The'land'was' barbarous'and'its'speech'was'unknown'to'me;'as'for'the'monks,'their'vile'and' untameable'way'of'life'was'notorious'almost'everywhere'.'.'.'And'there,'amid'the' dreadful'roar'of'the'waves'of'the'sea,'where'the'land's'end'ledt'me'no'further'refuge'in'
flight,'often'in'my'prayers'did'I'repeat'over'and'over'again:''From'the'end'of'the'earth'I' will'cry'unto'Thee,'when'my'heart'is'overwhelmed'
~'Was'actually'describing'Brittany
~'Not'a'Renaissance'across'all'of'France
~'Focused'on'cathedral'schools'and'cities Before'the'first'decade'of'the'13th'century'we'need'to'use''schools''rather'than' 'universities' 1209','students'killed'a'woman'so'Oxford'men'hanged'3'students
~'Study'was'suspended'for'5'years'until'1214','it'is'then'that'there'is'the'first'papal' charter'for'the'school
~'Lack'of'evidence'for'a'curriculum
~'3'disciplines'of'arts,'law'and'theology
~'Loosely'organised'collection'of'schools',>'a'proper'centralised'university '
~'Difficult'to'date'this
~'1166','evidence'for'teaching'of'canon'law

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