History Notes > University Of Oxford History Notes > History of the British Isles II: 1042-1330 Notes

Renaissance Notes

This is a sample of our (approximately) 15 page long Renaissance notes, which we sell as part of the History of the British Isles II: 1042-1330 Notes collection, a 1st Class package written at University Of Oxford in 2014 that contains (approximately) 951 pages of notes across 19 different documents.

Learn more about our History of the British Isles II: 1042-1330 Notes

Renaissance Revision

The following is a plain text extract of the PDF sample above, taken from our History of the British Isles II: 1042-1330 Notes. This text version has had its formatting removed so pay attention to its contents alone rather than its presentation. The version you download will have its original formatting intact and so will be much prettier to look at.

The$12th$Century$Renaissance Dr#Poleg

 Should'not'omit'Paris'and'Bologna'2'the'British'Isles'are'not'cut'off'from'the'rest'of'the'world
 Southern'2''in'all'this'the'impulse'comes'from'France'and'Italy'
 The'Renaissance'is'a'pan2European'phenomenon
 The'12th'Century'Renaissance'2'the'term'was'coined'by'C.'H.'Haskins

'
~'Aimed'to'refute'the'idea'that'the'Middle'Ages'were'the'Dark'Ages ' '
~'Period'between'Antiquity'and'the'15th'Century'Renaissance'2'seen'to'be'a'period' ' ' of'decay ' '
~'15th'Century'Renaissance'disregarded'the'Gothic'and'moved'away'from' ' ' ' Scholasticism '
~'Haskins'thought'that'a'similar'Renaissance'movement'could'be'seen'in'the'12th'century Renaissance'2'not'just'rediscovery'of'ancient'texts'but'also'a'revival'of'culture,'architecture,' law,'jurisprudence,'theology,'architecture,'illuminations'etc.

 Paris'and'Bologna'were'the'2'most'important'centres



'
~'Paris'2'theology '
~'Bologna'2'law th 12 'Century'Renaissance'is'connected'to'the'Crusades'and'the're2conquest'in'Spain '
~'Greek'knowledge'and'new'arithmetic,'algebra'and'astronomy'knowledge'came'from' ' the'more'advanced'Arabic'culture Greek'knowledge'was'translated'from'the'Arabic'into'Latin'e.g.'Euclid's'Elements Intellectual'knowledge'is'still'very'much'in'monasteries'and'cathedral'schools'at'the'start'of' the'Renaissance Can'extend'Renaissance'from'1077'until'1215 '
~'Gregory'VII'to'Lateran'IV

 Shift'in'the'location'of'knowledge''establishment'of'the'first'universities'at'the'end'of'the'

period Universities'came'about'at'the'beginning'of'the'13th'century'2'important'legal'status '
~'Centres'of'learning'that'are'not'immediately'connected'to'religion

 Early'12th'century'2'learning'was'traditional'and'Latin
 Arabic'influences'changed'knowledge

'
~'New'treatises'on'mathematics'and'astronomy The'way'people'wrote'also'changed '
~'Shift'in'numerals'2'until'then'numerals'were'primarily'Latin'but'as'the'period'progressed' ' there'was'a'move'to'Arabic'numerals ' '
~'Important'new'existence'of'the'number'zero'2'indispensable'for'calculations

 Walcher'of'Malvern'2'combined'religious'life'with'that'of'the'astronomer ' ' '

~'Produced'lunar'tables '
~'These'are'useful'as'they'are'recorded'with'dates'2'can'see'shifts'in'method'e.g.'he' ' began'to'use'an'astrolabe'to'measure'where'stars'are'in'order'to'make'charts

 Alfonsi'2'vast'knowledge'of'science
 First'in'the'Latin'West'to'produce'a'complete'set'of'astronomical'tables

 Scientific'community'in'south2west'England'in'the'1120s'2'Walcher'of'Malvern,'Alfonsi'and'


Adelard'of'Bath Alfonsi'also'compiled'Disciplina'clericalis'2'very'popular'set'of'proverbs Adelard'of'Bath'visited'many'areas'of'Europe They'produced'manuscripts'that'were'made'for'a'scientific'community

 Most'of'the'translation'from'Arabic'to'Latin'took'place'in'Sicily'and'Spain
 The'Church'was'able'to'differentiate'between'Islam'and'Arabic'knowledge'in'science ' ' '

~'Caused'a'problem'in'other'elements'such'as'theology'2'Christian'scholars'had'a'problem' in'that'when'they'looked'at'Hebrew'knowledge,'some'of'it'could'conflict'with'Church' doctrine

 Translation'from'Hebrew'to'Latin'took'place'in'England
 Bilingual'manuscripts'were'produced'in'a'collaboration'between'Christians'and'Jews'e.g.'the'








Hebrew'Latin'Psalter '
~'Part'of'the'Old'Testament'and'important'to'both'Judaism'and'Christianity '
~'3'columns'set'out'2'Jerome's'Latin'translation,'a'further'closer'translation'of'the'Hebrew' ' and'then'a'third'column'of'Hebrew''were'interested'in'the'original'text'of'the'psalms There'are'examples'of'working'manuscripts'with'interlinear'notes The'interest'in'Hebrew'scholarship'was'part'of'a'larger'shift'2'rise'of'a'literal'interpretation'of' the'Bible '
~'Had'4'different'ways'of'interpreting'scripture Early'Christianity'2'allegorical'sense'is'the'most'important '
~'12th'century'revival'of'the'literal'sense'2'what'the'author'intended Greater'interest'in'authorial'intention''interest'in'Hebrew'versions Typical'of'scholasticism Scholasticism'is'very'important'in'the'12th'century'Renaissance'2'looks'at'multiple'authorities' at'the'same'time''see'sources'as'diverse'and'not'necessarily'in'conflict'with'each'other '
~'Maxim'of'bringing'different'sources'together '
~'Many'textbooks'are'written'bringing'sources'together'e.g.'Gratian's'Decretum Rediscovered'Aristotelian'logic'and'used'it'to'harmonise'conflicting'authorities,'especially'in' law'and'theology Clement'of'Llanthony'harmonised'4'different'sources'in'his'Unum0et0quatuor This'method'can'also'be'seen'in'preaching

 Stephen'Langton'embodies'the'12th'Century'Renaissance




'
~'Studied'in'Paris'1165280 '
~'Teaching'in'Paris '
~'Later'a'Cardinal'and'then'Archbishop'of'Canterbury Numerous'examples'of'English'men'who'reside'and'teach'in'Paris About'a'third'of'all'scholars'in'the'University'of'Paris'are'of'English'origins '
~'Are'then'very'welcome'in'the'English'church 63%'of'the'entourage'of'the'Archbishop'of'Canterbury'by'1200'had'been'in'Paris '
~'Langton'emphasises'an'overall'trend'of'the'link'to'the'Continent Langton'does'much'preaching'2'nicknamed''thunder2tongue' '
~'Sees'himself'as'a'church'reformer '
~'Encountered'bishops'who'did'not'want'him'to'preach'his'modern'reform ' '
~'Find'evidence'of'this'in'his'biblical'commentaries

 Systemisation'of'knowledge'is'a'major'development
 Renaissance'is'not'just'about'new'knowledge'but'about'new'ways'of'understanding'that'
















knowledge,'preserving'it'and'engaging'with'it Law'and'theology'2'brought'together'different'authorities'on'a'single'text'and'led'to'the' development'of'the''glossa0ordinaria' '
~'Influential'new'layout'2'main'text'in'the'middle'with'larger'type,'in'between'the'lines' ' there'are'interlinear'notes'and'then'on'the'margins'there'are'different'authorities' ' commenting'on'the'text''new'complex'understanding The'glossa0ordinaria'was'immensely'important'2'complex'layout'to'provide'all'the'knowledge '
~'Began'to'use'footnotes,'asterisks,'stars'etc. Also'began'to'have'universal'divisions'of'text'which'could'be'referred'to'everyone'2'before'the' 12th'century'there'were'no'unified'chapter'divisions'of'the'Bible'so'it'is'difficult'to'refer'to'a' certain'part'of'a'book New'way'of'dividing'a'text'into'smaller'portions '
~'This'layout'of'the'Bible'has'been'used'ever'since Different'notion'of'presenting'and'retaining'knowledge More'and'more'list2making'in'the'later'Middle'Ages Bullet'point'lists'of'authorities Idea'of'division'as'a'way'of'structuring'knowledge'2'each'idea'is'broken'down'into'separate' ideas '
~'Diagrams'a'bit'like'a'tree'with'branches'spreading'outwards De0sex0alis0Cherubim'2'picture'consolidating'ideas'with'each'feather'of'the'angel'representing'a' theological'idea Start'from'a'single'idea'and'then'break'it'down'into'categories'2'division The'influence'of'the'12th'century'Renaissance'also'extended'to'literature Re2deployment'and'enhancement'of'popularity'of'literature'from'pagan'Rome Osbern'Pinnock'2'Panormia0 Rediscovery'of'the'classics'and'new'means'of'historical'narrative Writing'of'history'e.g.'William'of'Malmesbury Also'an'interest'in'the'means'of'governance'and'the'rise'of'bureaucracy'towards'the'end'of'the' 12th'century '
~'John'of'Salisbury'2'writes'on'bureaucracy'in'his'Policraticus The'Dialogus0de0Scaccario'shows'the'workings'of'the'Exchequer'and'also'shows'scholastic' dialogue '
~'Dialogue'between'a'disciple'and'a'master'2'typical'of'Scholasticism ' '
~'Question'and'answer'e.g.''What'is'the'exchequer?'

England'and'the'12th'Century'Renaissance Philippa'Byrne

' ' '





' '




'


' ' ' ' '


' ' ' ' '


' '


' '



'

Coined'in'1927',''12th'Century'Renaissance'
~'In'comparison'to'the'Renaissance'of'the'14th'and'15th'centuries
~'High'culture,'appreciation'of'the'classics'and'the'high'values'of'the'ancient'world' developed'in'1050,1250 Revival'of'classical'learning','dramatic'in'quality'and'quantity Closes'with'the'establishment'of'great'universities'across'Europe Haskins','classics'were'his'inherent'focus'for'finding'the'Renaissance Importance'of'commentaries'on'texts'for'learning'of'rhetoric'and'the'meanings'of'texts
~'Nature'of'virtue
~'How'the'argument'is'presented'and'developed Revival'of'antiquity'and'a're,engagement'with'classical'learning Can'compare'England'to'other'parts'of'Europe Late'11th'and'early'12th'centuries','great'cathedral'libraries'lack'some'basic'texts'of' ancient'learning'such'as'Cicero
~'As'the'century'advances,'they'acquire'these','yet'behind'countries'such'as'France Revision'of'this'argument'by'Benson'and'Constable','standard'book'on'the'subject
~'Renaissance'in'almost'every'aspect'of'cultural'life '
~'Never'really'addresses'the'question'of'what'intellectual'changed'there' ' actually'were'in'the'12th'century '
~'Simply'making'a'survey'of'the'cultural'life'of'the'period','not'showing'what' ' is'distinctive'in'the'12th'century Rise'of'systematic'theology','distinctive
~'Commentaries'on'the'Bible
~'From'the'11th'century'onwards'aimed'to'produce'a'continuous'commentary'on' all'the'Books'of'the'Bible '
~'Previously'only'the'Gospels'and'the'first'5'books
~'New'comprehensiveness'as'opposed'to'the'selections'of'before Cicero'and'Seneca','learning'from'these'could'then'be'applied'to'the'Bible
~'Highest'level'of'study'at'the'University'of'Paris'is'that'of'theology '
~'Needed'a'degree'in'the'liberal'art'of'classics'before'one'could'study'this Theological'summa','begins'with'the'creation'of'the'universe'and'goes'up'to'the'Last' Judgement
~'Tracts'with'questions','objections'and'responses '
~'e.g.'sacraments Definition'of'the'12th'century'Renaissance'by'its'theological'products Southern','described'England'as'a'new'colony'of'the'French'intellectual'empire
~'Continuing'uncertainty'as'to'the'place'of'England'in'High'medieval'Europe


' ' ' ' ' '



' ' ' ' ' '

Issue'of'English'exceptionalism','12th'century'England'was'not'a'nation'of'intellectuals' as'the'Crown'did'not'support'them'to'the'same'extent'as'others'in'Europe
~'Political'culture'was'different','bishops'were'mainly'officeholders'with'a'low' quality'of'learning',>'did'not'need'great'learning'as'others'did'in'Europe
~'e.g.'Thomas'Becket','had'only'elementary'study'of'the'classics'and'low'standard' of'Latin'yet'he'has'a'great'record'in'administrative'service '
~'Compared'to'Bishop'of'Paris'in'1228','had'spent'his'entire'life'in'universities' ' studying'theology'and'had'written'many'treatises If'you'succeed'in'the'English'Church'it'is'in'spite'of'your'learning'rather'than'because'of' it England'could'be'seen'as'not'lesser'but'just'different
~'Not'excelling'in'theology
~'English'achievements'are'supposedly'found'in'the'realm'of'history','specifically' English'talent'from'Bede'and'the'Anglo,Saxon'Chronicle'to'Henry'of'Huntingdon' and'Geoffrey'of'Monmouth '
~'Need'for'histories'following'the'Conquest
~'Lack'of'innovation','record,keeping Was'England'really'so'special'and'different'for'its'historical'endeavours?

Grosseteste','benefited'from'unusual'learning'conditions'in'England',>'great'and' different'synthesis'in'his'work

3'possible'ways'of'appreciating'the'place'of'England
~'Considering'the'geography'and'development'of'schools
~'Role'of'individuals
~'Textual'evidence'for'the'Renaissance

' ' '



' ' '



' ' ' ' ' ' '

Colony'of'French'intellectual'empire?
Geographically,'was'England'cut'off?
Abelard'(perhaps'the'greatest'master'of'12th'century'theology)',''The'land'was' barbarous'and'its'speech'was'unknown'to'me;'as'for'the'monks,'their'vile'and' untameable'way'of'life'was'notorious'almost'everywhere'.'.'.'And'there,'amid'the' dreadful'roar'of'the'waves'of'the'sea,'where'the'land's'end'ledt'me'no'further'refuge'in'
flight,'often'in'my'prayers'did'I'repeat'over'and'over'again:''From'the'end'of'the'earth'I' will'cry'unto'Thee,'when'my'heart'is'overwhelmed'
~'Was'actually'describing'Brittany
~'Not'a'Renaissance'across'all'of'France
~'Focused'on'cathedral'schools'and'cities Before'the'first'decade'of'the'13th'century'we'need'to'use''schools''rather'than' 'universities' 1209','students'killed'a'woman'so'Oxford'men'hanged'3'students
~'Study'was'suspended'for'5'years'until'1214','it'is'then'that'there'is'the'first'papal' charter'for'the'school
~'Lack'of'evidence'for'a'curriculum
~'3'disciplines'of'arts,'law'and'theology
~'Loosely'organised'collection'of'schools',>'a'proper'centralised'university '
~'Difficult'to'date'this
~'1166','evidence'for'teaching'of'canon'law

****************************End Of Sample*****************************

Buy the full version of these notes or essay plans and more in our History of the British Isles II: 1042-1330 Notes.