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Religion Notes

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Key Dates Trends Changing Definitions Imposition Sectarianism Civil Wars and Interregnum Clarendon Code James II and William III

Key Dates

1559 Acts of Supremacy and Uniformity 1560 - Scottish Confession of Faith 1595 - Lambeth Articles failed to provide doctrinal orthodoxy due to the intervention of the queen - ambiguous on predestination and justification by faith 1604 - Book of Canons 1606 - Oath of Allegiance against Pope deposing King 1626 - royal proclamation stopping pulpits talking about predestination 1629 - Royal Instructions 1633 - High Church Scottish coronation 1637 - riot in St Giles Cathedral, Edinburgh at imposition of Laudian Prayer Book 1638 - National Covenant, Glasgow Assembly denounced Prayer Book 1639 - declaration of war against Scotland -> unpopular e.g. iconoclasm by English army, lack of finances without Parliament 1640 - Parliament 1640 - Convocation and 17 controversial canons against popery and affirming divine monarchy -> refused in Lincolnshire and riots in London 1640 - 'Roots and Branches' Petition with 15k signatures appealing for abolition of bishops and all branches of episcopacy 1640 - Scots occupy Newcastle 1641 - Execution of Strafford 1641 - resolutions passed on 'Ecclesiastical Innovations' -> Ordinances 1643-44 - Ordinances ordering removal of communion rails and destruction of crosses, crucifixes and images, dancing and sports forbidden on Sabbath Day and renewed preaching campaign 1641 - report of Irish massacre of 10s of thousands of Protestants -> more like 4k 1641 - Grand Remonstrance with oppression due to popish conspiracy 1643 - Solemn League and Covenant agreed with Scotland - aimed to eliminate all bishops and defence of reformed religion 1645 - Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury, executed on same day as Book of Common Prayer is outlawed 1646 - Episcopacy abolished and ecclesiastical property sold to raise money, New Directory of Worship 1646 - Collapse of church courts 1648 - An Ordinance for the Punishing of Blasphemies and heresies - death penalty/imprisonment for many sects 1653 - Instrument of Government - none shall be compelled to accept the 'public profession' of the Church 1655 - Whitehall Conference stopped a formal readmission of the Jews 1662 - Act of Uniformity and old Prayer Book restored after Directory of Public Worship 1662 'Great Ejection' - more than 2,000 clergymen deprived 1664 - Act against Conventicles 1673 - Test Act and reintroduction of the communion rail 1689 Act of Toleration


Church of England only properly founded by Elizabeth Imposition from above v. grassroots Cannot have 'faith by statute' (Jones) Destabilising rise of the Arminians under Charles I - salvation through faith but also manifest in good works 'Puritan Revolution' - reinforced conservatism Protestantism linked to a new sense of nationhood as opposed to fealty to a monarch Religion as legitimising ideology e.g. Cromwell's hand of God Passive strength of Anglican survivalism

Religious dogmatism Really only the 3rd generation who accept reformed religion

Changing monarchical religious ideologies Issue of change of dynasty - Scottish Presbyterian v. English Calvinist New religion in colonies End of religious tradition

Hill - common people did not accept religion of their superiors -> many did not attend church Success due to increasingly literate laity and listen to sermons New liturgy involved laity - affirmation in prayer and singing of hymns (MacCulloch - song as most effective weapon)

Idea of 'secularisation' in the 17th century - from religious uniformity to pluralism Religion as a private faith - no longer the foundation of society, new ideas of toleration without chaos e.g. European cities Impossible for the government to enforce religious homogeneity Importance of universities - problem with over-enthusiasm Judgement of neighbour - reformation of manners?
Conflict with Laudianism and the 'beauty of holiness' e.g. altar rails Importance of towns - Reformation was not just urban but an important factor Urban interest in moral issues by early 1600s e.g. Stratford geese Catholicism was actively recovering Ireland from the 1590s - lost all chance of conversion by 1630s + condemnation of Irish people as Catholic -> only place where religion was not that willed by the monarch - issue of association with English authority

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