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Past questions Quotes o Historiography o France o Britain o Austria o Belgium o Japan Maps o The First French Empire in 1812 o The British Empire in 1921 o Austria-Hungary in 1914 o The Belgian Empire in 1920 o The Japanese Empire in 1914 Chronology o France o Britain o Austria o Belgium o Japan Historiography o Definition o Informal empire o Overview o Lenin o Hobson o Schumpeter o Hildebrand o Robinson and Gallagher o Fieldhouse o Cain and Hopkins o Porter o Diplomatic explanations o Financial explanations o Militaristic explanations o Social imperialism o Religious imperialism o Men on the spot o Technology o Imperialism and nationalism o Imperialism and globalisation Colonial rule o Oppression o Enlightenment o Collaboration o Administration o Technology
2??The First French Empire o Empire o Reasons for expansion o Rule o Domestic response o Fall of empire The British Empire o Formal empire o Informal empire o Reasons for expansion o Rule o Domestic response o Fall of empire The Austrian Empire o Empire o Reasons for expansion o Rule o Domestic response o Fall of empire The Belgian Empire o Formal empire o Reasons for expansion o Rule o Domestic response o Fall of empire The Japanese Empire o Empire o Reasons for expansion o Rule o Domestic response o Fall of empire
Can military over-extension provide a satisfactory explanation for the decline of empires?
o Specimen paper Are there any patterns in the rise and fall of empires?
o Tutorial essay How has the meaning of empire changed over time?
o Tutorial essay Are empires mainly viewed by contemporaries in material terms?
o Trinity 2013 Is the rise of one empire usually dependent on the fall of another?
o Trinity 2012 Is imperial expansion really driven by economic considerations?
o Trinity 2011 In what circumstances do subordinate territories rebel against imperial power?
o Trinity 2011 What roles have hierarchical conceptions of either gender or culture played in legitimising imperial rule?
o Trinity 2010 Do all empires follow similar patterns of historical development?
o Trinity 2010 Has the primary purpose of obtaining an empire been the increase in military resources that an empire provides?
o Trinity 2009 Do Empires promote tolerance?
o Trinity 2009 To what extent have ideas of racial hierarchy supported or subverted imperialism?
o Trinity 2008 Have empires been doomed by the fiscal burdens they create?
o Trinity 2008 'The most effective grave-diggers of empire are usually the imperialists themselves' (JH Eliot). Discuss. o Trinity 2007 Have ideologies of empire had much in common?
o Trinity 2007 Can 'military overextension' (Paul Kennedy) provide a satisfactory explanation for the decline of Empires?
o Trinity 2006 Imperialist exploitation or the benefits of integration: which better describes the economic systems of empires?
o Trinity 2006 Were European imperialisms more than superficially similar?
o Trinity 2005
4???"Imperialism is capitalism in that stage of development in which the domination of monopolies and finance capital has taken shape". o Vladimir Lenin. Imperialism is "the objectless disposition on the part of a state to unlimited forcible expansion". o Joseph Schumpeter. 'Europe was pulled into imperialism by the magnetic force of the periphery'. o DK Fieldhouse. 'Foreign policy-makers have never operated in a vacuum'. o Andrew Porter. 'Behind this question lies the tacit assumption that once Europeans wanted to spread their influence, they could readily do so'. o Daniel R Headrick. Empire was 'omnipresent in the lives of ordinary people'. o Catherine Hall and Sonya Rose. That 'the empire had no everyday relevance' for the British majority. o Frederick Madden.
5 France????A 'declaration of total war'. o TCW Blanning on the Levee en Masse. "They are laying the country waste". o Lieutenant Villiers, 1795. "From this day and this place commenced a new epoch in the world's history". o Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Valmy, 20th September 1792. The Revolution "set in motion new means and new forces". o Carl von Clausewitz. The 'rape of Europe'. o Charles Esdaile. "You must ensure, as a matter of principle, that war feeds war". o Napoleon to Marshal Soult in 1810. "The French soldier is not an automaton". o Report to the Military Committee of the Constituent Assembly. "Les aristocrates a la lanterne!" o Cries of the mutineers at Brest. "It is revolution, not insurrection". o The Captain of Le Northumberland, when asked if his crew was in mutiny.
"People seem wonderfully spirited to go out after the Indians". o Reverend Thomas Smith. "I called the New World into existence to redress the balance of the Old." o George Canning. "Spanish America is free, and if we do not mismanage our affairs badly, she is English". o George Canning, 1824. "We have the power in our hands, moral, physical, and mechanical; the first, based on the Bible, the second, upon the wonderful adaptation of the Anglo-Saxon race to all climates, situations, and circumstances... the third, bequeathed to us by the immortal Watt". o Macgregor Laird "Afghanistan must be ours or Russia's". o Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston. As "almost an empire, in all but name". o Herman Merivale of the Colonial Office on commercial dominance of East Asia. "I have added two provinces to Your Majesty's dominions". o Cecil Rhodes, 1895. "Take your banner! Onward go! / Christian soldiers, seek your foe, / And the devil to refute, / Do not hesitate to shoot." o Satirical hymn from Truth, 16th April 1891. The "Oriental generally acts, speaks, and thinks in a manner exactly opposite to the European". o Evelyn Baring, Earl Cromer. "Why worry about the rind, if we can obtain the fruit?" o Nathaniel Curzon, 1st Marquess of Kedleston on informal empire. Of "carrying the glad tidings of 'peace and good will toward men' into the dark places of the earth which are now filled with cruelty". o Macgregor Laird. "The sentiment of empire may be called innate in every Briton." o William Ewart Gladstone. "There is neither extravagance nor impropriety in realising for a moment the splendour of the empire". o The Westminster Review, 1870. "We haven't got quite the whole world yet - but we're getting it by degrees". o Popular music hall song. That "the prosperity of London is intimately connected with the prosperity and greatness of the Empire of which it is the centre." o Joseph Chamberlain rallying the City of London in the 1910 election campaign. "[T]he home consumers have been burdened with the whole expense of maintaining and defending that empire". o Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations, 1776.
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