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University Reform Notes

History Notes > Intellect and Culture in Victorian Britain Notes

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University
Reform

Contents

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University Reform Tutorial
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Education and Society Class
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Gender Class
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Universities and Elites in Britain since 1800 -- R. D. Anderson
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Victorian Universities and the National Intelligentsia -- J. P. C. Roach
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The Political Economy of Women's Higher Education in late 19th and early 20th
Century Britain -- J. Howarth and M. Curthoys

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The Transformation of Intellectual Life in Victorian England -- T. W. Heyck
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Cambridge Before Darwin: The Ideal of a Liberal Education, 1800--1860 -- M.
McMackin Garland

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Dons and Workers: Oxford and Adult Education since 1850 -- L. Goldman
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Reform and Expansion, 1854--1871 -- C. Harvie
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Oxford and the Idea of a University in Nineteenth Century Britain -- L. Goldman
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A History with the Politics Left Out: Cambridge 1870--1990 -- L. Goldman
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The Movement for the Higher Education of Women: its social and intellectual
context in England, c. 1840--80 -- G. Sutherland

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The Church, the Universities and Learning in Later Victorian England -- A. G. L.
Haig

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From the Tractarians to the Executive Commission, 1845--1854 -- W. R. Ward
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English Ideas of the University in the Nineteenth Century -- C. C. Gillispie
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Lectures and Essays -- J. R. Seeley
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Preface to J. Conrad, The German Universities for the last fifty years -- J. Bryce
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The Higher Education of Women -- Emily Davies

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University Reform Tutorial
Part of a greater process of Victorian liberalism
~ Want to open up institutions

~ Should be meritocratic and rational

~ Civil service and the Church -- major impulses of the 19th century
Universities are not special within this
1828 -- UCL
~ Secular college
~ Catholic emancipation
1828 -- Test and Corporation Acts are removed
~ Had limited what Nonconformists could do -- could now become ministers for the
Crown
1829 -- Catholic Emancipation
~ Had not been able to sit in Parliament
~ Problem in governing Ireland -- was 80% Catholic
~ Peel was unpopular as the Oxford MP but had to pass the motion in Parliament
Concept of religious pluralism -- major issue in the 1820s
1854 -- Oxford University Reform Act
~ Northcott--Trevelyan Report

~ Inquiry into recruitment in the civil service

~ Need for open competition and examination

~ Meritocracy


~ Enacted by the Gladstone administration after coming into power in

1868
'Ventilation' of the universities at the same time as state service

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Early 1870s -- English universities are opened up to all religions and backgrounds

~ Try to apply the same reforms to Ireland -- this bill fails in 1873 --> precipitates the
ejection of the Gladstone government in 1874
! Chronology of liberalism fits university reform

~ Dominant concept of the age
! Royal Commissioners look into both schools and universities

~ This is what a liberalising state does

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Jowett -- does not want the university to be so much of a professorial research institution

~ Teachers should be leaders in their area

~ Not a full Germaniser

~ Brought Balliol up to be the dominant college in the university


~ New model of what the university should do

~ University is for training good politicians, teachers and a good civil service --
benefiting the nation

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1900 -- only 10--15% graduates are ordained

~ Jowett responds to secularisation -- there is a new philosophy of university
education

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Jowett -- still wants to build the character of men

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1854 -- compromise -- not a 'revolution of the dons'
~ Keep tutorial system
~ Still associated with the church
~ Not totally a research institution

~ Set of smaller changes which keep different options open

~ Expanded professoriate yet they retain the tutorial system

~ Slightly greater federal power -- colleges still have the greatest power
Lack of total definition and combination of different roles dates from 1854
Idea of a university as a 'multiversity'
~ This is more how Jowett sees it






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Disjuncture between Royal Commissions and actual Acts
Gladstone came back to Oxford in 1853 and 1854 and spoke to people -- influenced by
the Tutors' Committee
Royal Commissioners differ
~ Less radical when reforming statutes
~ Historical differences between colleges endure
~ Some commissioners see themselves as having different roles
Owen's, Manchester and Masons, Birmingham were technological colleges
~ Many were not degree courses
~ Thousands of students were getting a technical education part--time
Firth, College, Sheffield --> university

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Oxford science does develop and this is earlier than Cambridge -- 1850s
Natural history museum -- rooms upstairs for teaching

~ Monument to intentions

~ Human problem -- bad appointments --> senior chairs are not interested in
building up the curriculum

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Faraday (1820s) and Davy (late 18th century) are much earlier
By the late 19th century science was much better
Cambridge -- great Cavendish laboratory --> greatest developments here
William Buckland -- fellow and tutor in geology
~ Brings in local people
Geology is the most popular development
Sir Charles Lyell -- 'Principles of Geology' (1830)
~ Presents the case that the Earth is millions of years old
Geology -- does not need equipment or complicated science
~ Low--tech and low demand on time but high return
~ Popular science
Uniformitarianism -- looking for slow change
Catastrophism -- looking for discontinuity of Noah's flood
~ Kept open the idea of miracles
Part of the debates over biblical literalism

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German Higher biblical criticism

~ Treated it as just another classical text

~ Strauss's 'Life of Jesus' is translated into English in the 1840s by George Eliot --
very influential book


~ Strauss was friends with Marx -- part of the young Hegelians

~ One of several influential books from Germany

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By the late 19th century natural science is a component of university culture

~ Oxbridge 1890s -- significant groups of men are involved in scientific development
George Brodrick -- speech in 1876 to the
Social Science Association
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~ Very critical of the great provincial cities -- it is not the job of Oxbridge to found
new cities

~ Towns have the wealth to do this themselves
! American civic culture -- every city should have a university
! Americans always built postgraduate schools -- idea that specialisation would come later
! Brodrick's speech is very interesting -- he is not a conservative don
! Devonshire Commission 1872--4

~ Ammunition in defence of Oxbridge

~ Total endowments


~ Oxford PS275k p.a.


~ Cambridge around PS175k p.a.

~ Looking at all the demand there is not actually much to spare
! US culture of philanthropy -- always had this civic culture of giving from the 19th century

~ Brodrick wants this in provincial cities

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Education and Society Class

Should the development of secondary education in Victorian England be seen as
a success story or a failure?

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Success of secondary education

1. Thomas Arnold's reforms of Rugby 1828--41
~ Reforms spread across public schools

2. Expansion of state schools
~ Greater right to education

3. Girls' schools

Thomas Arnold
! Believed education was part of the formulation of character -- rigorous discipline
! Not merely scholars -- Christian gentlemen

~ Contrary to Henry Sidgwick -- did not totally emphasise classics

~ History, Maths, Sciences
Reformed power dynamics -- not just a total hierarchy
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~ Power only given to sixth formers

~ Thought that this was necessary for the internalisation of civilised values
! Tom Brown's Schooldays
! Bamford -- Arnold contradicts the party line and has a misleading reputation

~ Large family but did not understand children

~ Ran a school yet was really interested in religious and social progress

~ Very interested in classics
All schooling was religious until Bentham founded
University College London and
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University College School

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State intervention
! 1820 -- Wilberforce opened his first school
! 1833 -- Parliament voted for schools
! Elementary Education Act required education to the age of 10
! 1802 -- antecedent of Peel's factory act

~ Growing concern for children

~ Reading, writing and arithmetic must be taught in the first 4 years of an
apprenticeship
! Worry that reading and arithmetic might stop them being involved in laborious work

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Women's education
! Schools Enquiry Commission Report in the mid--century -- misogynistic
! Women should prepare themselves for matrimonial life
! Finds evidence from parents for indifference to girls' education -- less immediate
pecuniary result
! Idea of not being able to be so highly educated
! Davies -- women were meant to be 'amiable and inoffensive'
! Idea that education might have benefit in helping husbands

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