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Ireland Notes

History Notes > Ireland, 1789 - 1922 Notes

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Contents???Past questions Quotes o Society o The Irish Question o Nationalism o Unionism Illustrations o Ireland in 1808 o Nationalist movements Chronology o Governments o British events o Irish events o Nationalism Ireland o Geography o Economy o Society o Religion The Irish Question o Background o Historiography o The Act of Union o Emancipation o Peel and the Whigs o The Great Famine o The Land Question o Disestablishment o The Phoenix Park murders o The First Home Rule Bill o The Second Home Rule Bill o The Third Home Rule Bill o The Great War o The Fourth Home Rule Bill o The Irish Free State Nationalism o Origins o Nature o Religion o Language o The United Irishmen o The Catholic Association o The Tithe War o The Repeal Association o Young Ireland o The Tenant League o The Independent Irish Party


3o The Fenians o The Home Government Association and Home Rule League o The Irish Parliamentary Party o The Gaelic League o Sinn Fein o The Irish Republican Brotherhood Ulster o Origins o Ulster and O'Connell o Unionism o The Ulster Volunteer Force o Epilogue

Quotes Society



"And the day on which peace was signed... (the) great customer of the producers died". o Robert Owen. Catholic priests sought to stamp out "venerable old customs". o John O'Donovan. People saw 'no absolute contradiction between popular supernaturalism and attachment to an institution'. o Theodore Hoppen. That "the Catholic people of Ireland are a nation." o Daniel O'Connell.

The Irish Question???????

"[A] starving population, an absentee aristocracy, and an alien Church, and, in addition, the weakest executive in the world. That was the Irish question". o Benjamin Disraeli, 1844. He has "sunk from decent manhood to squalid apehood". o Thomas Carlyle on the Irishman. "It was the Pope one day, potatoes the next". o Benjamin Disraeli. "It is enslaved in the chains of the Moral Tale - the good man (English) who prospered, and the bad man (Irish) who came to a shocking end". o JR Green on Irish history, 1912. Establishment was an "essential and fundamental part of the Union". o The Act of Union, 1st August 1800. Repeal was: "tantamount to a dismemberment of the empire." o Sir Robert Peel. "Johnny had upset the coach". o Lord Stanley on Lord John Russell's defiance of his party on Irish issues. That "within a day's communication of the capital of the greatest and richest empire in the world, thousands of our fellow creatures are each day dying of starvation." o Isaac Butt on the Great Hunger. "We are reaping the fruit of English legislation." o The Belfast Vindicator on the Great Famine. That: "the Fenian conspiracy has been an important influence with regard to Irish policy". o William Ewart Gladstone, 1869. It is "the most absurd" institution of the civilised world. o Thomas Babington Macaulay on the Church of Ireland. The "criminal lunacy" of Gladstone's approach. o Sir William Harcourt, Leader of the House of Commons, 1886. "The war is against military despotism and in defence of the integrity of small nations." o The Cork Free Press, 1914. "Ireland has been admitted by the democracy of England upon equal terms to her proper place in the Empire".


5 o

John Redmond, 1914.

Nationalism??????That "the Catholic people of Ireland are a nation." o Daniel O'Connell. "They must crush us or conciliate us". o Daniel O'Connell, 1828. Daniel O'Connell is "King of Ireland". o Alleged comment of George IV. "I am not sure he knows exactly where he is going". o JJ O'Kelly on Charles Stuart Parnell. Parnellism was partly an 'exercise in electoral technique'. o Alvin Jackson. That "we will become... a nation of imitators, the Japanese of Western Europe" o Douglas Hyde in his 1892 lecture, 'The Necessity of De-Anglicising Ireland'. The "schools shall be ours". o Patrick Pearse. To serve "neither King nor Kaiser, but Ireland". o The Irish Citizen Army. "The war is against military despotism and in defence of the integrity of small nations." o The Cork Free Press, 1914. Parnellism is a "constitutional sham" and "force was the only remedy". o Thomas Kelly. Supporting "Irish Ireland", denouncing "sham patriotism", attacking "West Britishism". o DP Moran in The Leader. That "bloodshed is a cleansing and satisfying thing, and the nation which regards it as the final horror has lost its manhood". o Patrick Pearse. The Easter Rising was "madness". o WB Yeats' sister Lilly, 1916.

Unionism?"All our progress has been made under the union... Since the union and under equal laws, we have been wedded to the empire and made a progress second to none." o The Belfast Chamber of Commerce to WE Gladstone. "If there had been no Londonderry and no Enniskillen and no Newtownbutler two hundred years ago... there would be no United Kingdom today." o The Belfast Newsletter. "I can imagine no length of resistance to which Ulster can go in which I should not be prepared to support them." o Andrew Bonar Law, 1912


6"We would much prefer to remain part and parcel of the United Kingdom." o Captain Charles Craig.

Illustrations Ireland in 1808



Nationalist movements Dates



Up to 1798

Wolfe Tone

The United Irishmen

1823 - 1829

Daniel O'Connell

The Catholic Association

Daniel O'Connell

The Loyal National Repeal Association

1840 - 1843

1840 - 1848

Thomas Davis, John Mitchel, William Smith O'Brien

Young Ireland

1850 Gavan Duffy, Frederick Lucas

The Tenant League

1852 Various

The Independent Irish Party

1858 - 1867

John O'Mahoney, James Stephens

The Fenian Brotherhood

1870 - 1873

Isaac Butt

The Home Government Association

1873 -

Isaac Butt,

The Home Rule


Key points Allying with French to launch an uprising Mass movement seeking emancipation Demagogic pursuit of Union repeal Inclusive, literary revolutionaries leaning towards cultural Irish nationhood Highlighting the plight of tenant right Party seeking three Fs and disestablishment
revolutionary movement, linked to Irish Republican Brotherhood Broad movement with Fenian links seeking Home Rule Broad Home

Fate Repression and martyrdom Success and proscription Cancelled and disbanded Failed rebellion in July 1848, but had important heritage Soon split on regional differences Fell apart without organisation Failed in 1867 rising, influence and IRB lingered long afterwards Reformed into the Home Rule League in 1873 Updated into a

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