Someone recently bought our

students are currently browsing our notes.


Revolutions Notes

History Notes > Revolutions Notes

This is an extract of our Revolutions document, which we sell as part of our Revolutions Notes collection written by the top tier of University Of Oxford students.

The following is a more accessble plain text extract of the PDF sample above, taken from our Revolutions Notes. Due to the challenges of extracting text from PDFs, it will have odd formatting:

Disciplines: revolutions



Contents????Past questions Quotes o Historiography o Revolutions o 1905 Chronology o Events Historiography o Etymology o Definition o Revolutionary success o Economics o Social preconditions o The military o Revolutionary models o The people o Ideology o Violence The French Revolution, 1789 o Origins o Events o Outcome The Year of Revolutions, 1848 o Origins o Events o Outcome The Meiji Revolution, 1868 o Origins o Events o Outcome The Paris Commune, 1871 o Origins o Events o Outcome The 1905 Revolution, 1905 o Origins o Events o Outcome

Past questionsDoes a political revolution require a legitimising ideology?
o Specimen paper

Disciplines : revolution


Does a revolution require a legitimising ideology?
o Tutorial essay How far do revolutions need popular support in order to succeed??
o Tutorial essay Are revolutions inherently violent?
o Trinity 2013 Is popular support crucial to the success of revolutions?
o Trinity 2012 In what circumstances do political revolutions not result in the establishment of dictatorial governments?
o Trinity 2011 Has fear been the motor of revolutions?
o Trinity 2010 How much has the success or failure of revolutions been determined by the presence of ideology?
o Trinity 2010 Are revolutions a product of rising expectations?
o Trinity 2009 Why have counter-revolutions succeeded or failed?
o Trinity 2009 Under what circumstances have peasants become a revolutionary force?
o Trinity 2008 Has religious belief supported revolutionary sentiment?
o Trinity 2008 Does comparative study of revolutions help us to understand why they happen?
o Trinity 2007 Do political revolutions change national cultures?
o Trinity 2007 Are structural crises a pre-requisite for a successful political revolution?
o Trinity 2006 Do social and/or political revolutions require an ideology in order to legitimate themselves?
o Trinity 2006 Have revolutionary ideologies been invariably short-lived?
o Trinity 2005 o

Quotes Historiography

Disciplines : revolution


A 'violent and total change in a political system'. o David Robertson. The 'seizure of state power through violent means by the leaders of a mass movement, when that power is subsequently used to initiate major processes of social reform". o Anthony Giddens. 'Unsuccessful attempts to overthrow government, to gain control of the political system, to bring about far-reaching change; none of these is a revolution.' o Peter Calvert. Revolutions are 'rapid, basic transformations in a society's state and class structure'. o Theda Skocpol. Only revolutionaries with 'a reasonable chance of success' are revolutionaries. o Michael S Kimmel. The goal of a revolution is the 'foundation of freedom'. o Hannah Ardent. 'But administrative-military breakdowns alone were not enough to cause social revolutions.' o Theda Skocpol. "Nous sommes a la veille d'une revolution dans les beaux-arts". o Stendhal, 1824. That 'revolutions have never taken place, and never will take place, save with the aid of an important faction of the army'. o Gustave le Bon. 'The balance between government and opposition will determine the outcome of armed conflict, not the numbers engaged on one side or another'. o William A Gamson.

Disciplines : revolution



That 'we could not contain the people's fury; if we had gone too far, they would have exterminated us'. o French soldier in Paris, diary entry, May 1789. "They are laying the country waste". o Lieutenant Villiers, 1795. A 'declaration of total war'. o TCW Blanning on the Levee en Masse. "From this day and this place commenced a new epoch in the world's history". o Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Valmy, 20th September 1792. The Revolution "set in motion new means and new forces". o Carl von Clausewitz. The 'rape of Europe'. o Charles Esdaile. "You must ensure, as a matter of principle, that war feeds war". o Napoleon to Marshal Soult in 1810. "The French soldier is not an automaton". o Report to the Military Committee of the Constituent Assembly. "Les aristocrates a la lanterne!" o Cries of the mutineers at Brest. "It is revolution, not insurrection". o The Captain of Le Northumberland, when asked if his crew was in mutiny. "The People of Paris to All Europe: Liberty, Equality, Fraternity". o Carving on the French throne in 1848. "Our first priority is to save our world: if we are forced to permit trade for now... at a later time we will be able to redeem our honour". o Sugita Gempaku. I am someone who can "bring fifty men-of-war to these shores". o Townsend Harris, American consul-general at Shimoda. It would "disturb the ideas of our people and make it impossible to preserve lasting tranquillity". o Emperor Komei on the Harris Treaty. To "honour the emperor, expel the barbarian" o Isolationist slogan. "The price of things is daily increasing," because of foreign products. o The shogun's council. Japan must "follow the example of the foreigners in using the profits from trade to construct many ships and guns". o Shogun Tokugawa Iemochi, 1865. A promise 'to unite the hearts of all people regardless of rank'. o Emperor Meiji's Charter Oath, April 1868.

Disciplines : revolution


1905?????????They are "senseless dreams". o Nikolas II on the calls for a national gentry assembly. "Stores are empty. Factories have curtailed production." o A newspaper in Warsaw, 1904 That "there exist two Russias... and what pleases one is quite sure to displease the other". o Liberal leader PN Milukov, 1905. "The voice of the zemstvo is the voice of life". o The Chernigov zemstvo. "There was a feeling of burning shame and undeserved injury." o Liberal activist NI Astrov. That "the Port Arthur debacle promises to shatter the foundations of the regime of Nikolas II". o Georgi Plekhanov. "We are living at a time of extreme animation of national and nationalist feelings among all peoples inhabiting the Russia Empire". o An intellectual, 1910. The gentry were "even incapable of simply residing in the countryside". o A 1905 report to the St Petersburg noble assembly. "Formerly we kept no accounts and drank champagne; now we keep accounts and content ourselves with kvass". o A barin after the 1905 Revolution. "All classes of Russian society are... in a state of ferment". o Maurice Bombard, French ambassador to St Petersburg, 1904. That "the sovereign considers the autocracy a dogma of faith". o Sergei Witte. "The yearning for democracy is alien to the Russian people". o NA Shipov. The press print "rapid attacks against the bureaucracy, the war, and the government". o Samuel Harper, late 1904. "You run away from the Japanese, but you shoot at your own people". o Protestors, 22nd January 1905. "For out centuries-old service to the state we received a wretched allotment of land with high redemption dues". o Petition from the village of Tashino, 1905. To "exterminate the gangs of insurgents". o The orders received by one colonel. That "now he wants to hang and shoot everybody". o Tsar Nikolas II on Sergei Witte, January 1906. "The Russian State is one and indivisible." o The Fundamental State Laws of the Russian Empire, 1906 And "the palmy days of autocracy have been revived". o A British journalist, July 1906.

Disciplines : revolution

6The failure to "reconcile the two eternally hostile forces, the state and society". o Octobrist leader, Aleksandr Guchkov, 1914.

Chronology Events 1688 - Glorious Revolution May 1789 - French soldier in Paris notes the wrath of the people 28th August 1789 - National Assembly gives the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen 1792 - National Convention passes Edict of Fraternity 20th September 1792 - Battle of Valmy August 1793 - Levee en Masse 1793 - Revolution in one country August 1793 - Levee en masse July 1794 - Thermidorian Reaction 1795 - Creation of the Directory October 1795 - Vendemaire Rising 1799 - Consulate established 1804 - First Empire 1814 - Defeat of Napoleon 1846 - Rising of Polish nobility in Galicia 1847 - Recession March 1848 - Competition for Republic painting announced June 1848 - 'June Days'; four bloody days as Cavaignac puts down riots October 1848 - Republic Competition abandoned 1849 - Salon; Jean-Louis-Ernest Meissonier submits June, then withdraws; oppression in Austria 1850 - 1851 - Salon; Memory of Civil War 1853 - Commodore C Perry arrives in Edo Bay

Disciplines : revolution

Buy the full version of these notes or essay plans and more in our Revolutions Notes.