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Revolutions Notes

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Disciplines: revolutions

Revolution

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Contents????Past questions Quotes o Historiography o Revolutions o 1905 Chronology o Events Historiography o Etymology o Definition o Revolutionary success o Economics o Social preconditions o The military o Revolutionary models o The people o Ideology o Violence The French Revolution, 1789 o Origins o Events o Outcome The Year of Revolutions, 1848 o Origins o Events o Outcome The Meiji Revolution, 1868 o Origins o Events o Outcome The Paris Commune, 1871 o Origins o Events o Outcome The 1905 Revolution, 1905 o Origins o Events o Outcome

Past questionsDoes a political revolution require a legitimising ideology?
o Specimen paper

Disciplines : revolution

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Does a revolution require a legitimising ideology?
o Tutorial essay How far do revolutions need popular support in order to succeed??
o Tutorial essay Are revolutions inherently violent?
o Trinity 2013 Is popular support crucial to the success of revolutions?
o Trinity 2012 In what circumstances do political revolutions not result in the establishment of dictatorial governments?
o Trinity 2011 Has fear been the motor of revolutions?
o Trinity 2010 How much has the success or failure of revolutions been determined by the presence of ideology?
o Trinity 2010 Are revolutions a product of rising expectations?
o Trinity 2009 Why have counter-revolutions succeeded or failed?
o Trinity 2009 Under what circumstances have peasants become a revolutionary force?
o Trinity 2008 Has religious belief supported revolutionary sentiment?
o Trinity 2008 Does comparative study of revolutions help us to understand why they happen?
o Trinity 2007 Do political revolutions change national cultures?
o Trinity 2007 Are structural crises a pre-requisite for a successful political revolution?
o Trinity 2006 Do social and/or political revolutions require an ideology in order to legitimate themselves?
o Trinity 2006 Have revolutionary ideologies been invariably short-lived?
o Trinity 2005 o

Quotes Historiography

Disciplines : revolution

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A 'violent and total change in a political system'. o David Robertson. The 'seizure of state power through violent means by the leaders of a mass movement, when that power is subsequently used to initiate major processes of social reform". o Anthony Giddens. 'Unsuccessful attempts to overthrow government, to gain control of the political system, to bring about far-reaching change; none of these is a revolution.' o Peter Calvert. Revolutions are 'rapid, basic transformations in a society's state and class structure'. o Theda Skocpol. Only revolutionaries with 'a reasonable chance of success' are revolutionaries. o Michael S Kimmel. The goal of a revolution is the 'foundation of freedom'. o Hannah Ardent. 'But administrative-military breakdowns alone were not enough to cause social revolutions.' o Theda Skocpol. "Nous sommes a la veille d'une revolution dans les beaux-arts". o Stendhal, 1824. That 'revolutions have never taken place, and never will take place, save with the aid of an important faction of the army'. o Gustave le Bon. 'The balance between government and opposition will determine the outcome of armed conflict, not the numbers engaged on one side or another'. o William A Gamson.

Disciplines : revolution

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Revolutions?????????

That 'we could not contain the people's fury; if we had gone too far, they would have exterminated us'. o French soldier in Paris, diary entry, May 1789. "They are laying the country waste". o Lieutenant Villiers, 1795. A 'declaration of total war'. o TCW Blanning on the Levee en Masse. "From this day and this place commenced a new epoch in the world's history". o Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Valmy, 20th September 1792. The Revolution "set in motion new means and new forces". o Carl von Clausewitz. The 'rape of Europe'. o Charles Esdaile. "You must ensure, as a matter of principle, that war feeds war". o Napoleon to Marshal Soult in 1810. "The French soldier is not an automaton". o Report to the Military Committee of the Constituent Assembly. "Les aristocrates a la lanterne!" o Cries of the mutineers at Brest. "It is revolution, not insurrection". o The Captain of Le Northumberland, when asked if his crew was in mutiny. "The People of Paris to All Europe: Liberty, Equality, Fraternity". o Carving on the French throne in 1848. "Our first priority is to save our world: if we are forced to permit trade for now... at a later time we will be able to redeem our honour". o Sugita Gempaku. I am someone who can "bring fifty men-of-war to these shores". o Townsend Harris, American consul-general at Shimoda. It would "disturb the ideas of our people and make it impossible to preserve lasting tranquillity". o Emperor Komei on the Harris Treaty. To "honour the emperor, expel the barbarian" o Isolationist slogan. "The price of things is daily increasing," because of foreign products. o The shogun's council. Japan must "follow the example of the foreigners in using the profits from trade to construct many ships and guns". o Shogun Tokugawa Iemochi, 1865. A promise 'to unite the hearts of all people regardless of rank'. o Emperor Meiji's Charter Oath, April 1868.

Disciplines : revolution

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1905?????????They are "senseless dreams". o Nikolas II on the calls for a national gentry assembly. "Stores are empty. Factories have curtailed production." o A newspaper in Warsaw, 1904 That "there exist two Russias... and what pleases one is quite sure to displease the other". o Liberal leader PN Milukov, 1905. "The voice of the zemstvo is the voice of life". o The Chernigov zemstvo. "There was a feeling of burning shame and undeserved injury." o Liberal activist NI Astrov. That "the Port Arthur debacle promises to shatter the foundations of the regime of Nikolas II". o Georgi Plekhanov. "We are living at a time of extreme animation of national and nationalist feelings among all peoples inhabiting the Russia Empire". o An intellectual, 1910. The gentry were "even incapable of simply residing in the countryside". o A 1905 report to the St Petersburg noble assembly. "Formerly we kept no accounts and drank champagne; now we keep accounts and content ourselves with kvass". o A barin after the 1905 Revolution. "All classes of Russian society are... in a state of ferment". o Maurice Bombard, French ambassador to St Petersburg, 1904. That "the sovereign considers the autocracy a dogma of faith". o Sergei Witte. "The yearning for democracy is alien to the Russian people". o NA Shipov. The press print "rapid attacks against the bureaucracy, the war, and the government". o Samuel Harper, late 1904. "You run away from the Japanese, but you shoot at your own people". o Protestors, 22nd January 1905. "For out centuries-old service to the state we received a wretched allotment of land with high redemption dues". o Petition from the village of Tashino, 1905. To "exterminate the gangs of insurgents". o The orders received by one colonel. That "now he wants to hang and shoot everybody". o Tsar Nikolas II on Sergei Witte, January 1906. "The Russian State is one and indivisible." o The Fundamental State Laws of the Russian Empire, 1906 And "the palmy days of autocracy have been revived". o A British journalist, July 1906.

Disciplines : revolution

6The failure to "reconcile the two eternally hostile forces, the state and society". o Octobrist leader, Aleksandr Guchkov, 1914.

Chronology Events 1688 - Glorious Revolution May 1789 - French soldier in Paris notes the wrath of the people 28th August 1789 - National Assembly gives the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen 1792 - National Convention passes Edict of Fraternity 20th September 1792 - Battle of Valmy August 1793 - Levee en Masse 1793 - Revolution in one country August 1793 - Levee en masse July 1794 - Thermidorian Reaction 1795 - Creation of the Directory October 1795 - Vendemaire Rising 1799 - Consulate established 1804 - First Empire 1814 - Defeat of Napoleon 1846 - Rising of Polish nobility in Galicia 1847 - Recession March 1848 - Competition for Republic painting announced June 1848 - 'June Days'; four bloody days as Cavaignac puts down riots October 1848 - Republic Competition abandoned 1849 - Salon; Jean-Louis-Ernest Meissonier submits June, then withdraws; oppression in Austria 1850 - 1851 - Salon; Memory of Civil War 1853 - Commodore C Perry arrives in Edo Bay

Disciplines : revolution

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