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Jenny Pearce – Perverse State Formation And Securitized Democracy In Latin America Notes

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Jenny Pearce - Perverse state formation and securitized democracy in Latin America

In many LA countries the very trajectory of the state-formation process has facilitated a rapid reproduction of violence o I call this process 'perverse': democracy is subject to the fears and insecurities of the population, enabling the state to build its authority not on the protection of citizens' rights, but on armed and violent actors in the name of 'security provision'
 In this process categories of people become noncitizens, subjected to abuse by state, para-state and non-state violent actors Most violence in LA in the C20 has occurred within states, not between them o Insurgencies spread throughout the region following the Cuban revolution, and led to organized state violence, 'far more cruel than anything it was suppressing' o Towards the end of the C20, new forms of violence that didn't merit the qualification 'political' - with high recorded levels of homicide and violent injuries, esp. in cities, which are often occupied by squatters displaced from the land Koonings and Krujt identify three epochs of violence in LA history
 1 - relating to the preservation of the traditional rural and oligarchic social order
 2 - relating to the problem of the modernization of the state and incorporation of the masses into politics
 3 - relating to the difficulties of consolidating democratic stability, economic progress and social inclusion o we also need to recognize the way in which violence is reproduced over time - violence 'is not only enacted in the present…but violence has a tomorrow' (Nordstrom)
 violence is transmitted through space and time e.g. through gendered socialization process
 violence is transmitted in the family, the neighbourhood, the school, workplace, prison, plaza as well as the very construction of the nation-state itself We need to move beyond this simplistic understanding of violence as 'political' or 'social' - these categories neither describe nor explain high levels of violence in the region o The LA state increasingly claims legitimacy not from a monopoly of violence but from its lack of such a monopoly - this lack provides the state with social

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