This is an extract of our Heart Failure document, which we sell as part of our Clinical Cardiology Notes collection written by the top tier of Bristol University students.
The following is a more accessble plain text extract of the PDF sample above, taken from our Clinical Cardiology Notes. Due to the challenges of extracting text from PDFs, it will have odd formatting:
? ? ? ? Definition o Result of structural/functional cardiac disorder= CO inadequate o 2/1000 (UK); 1-3% (10% elderly); Poor prognosis 25-50% die <5yrs o Initially adaptive mechanisms compensate=maintain CO (AT REST) o Eventually cardiac function declines=
? ? ? ? Pathophysiology Changes heart & peripheral vascular result of haemodynamic changes o Ventricular dilatation o Myocyte hypertrophy o Increased collagen synthesis o Altered myosin gene expression o Altered sarcoplasmic Ca-ATPase density o Increased ANP secretion o Salt and water retention
? Activation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system= Loss of beneficial compensatory mechanisms-->
Cardiac decompensation o Peripheral vasoconstriction (r-a-a--> Cardiac decompensation) o Sympathetic stimulation
? ? ? ? Development of CHF following IHD
? ? ? ? Chronic effects of CHF
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