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Pericardial Diseases Notes

Medicine Notes > Clinical Cardiology Notes

This is an extract of our Pericardial Diseases document, which we sell as part of our Clinical Cardiology Notes collection written by the top tier of Bristol University students.

The following is a more accessble plain text extract of the PDF sample above, taken from our Clinical Cardiology Notes. Due to the challenges of extracting text from PDFs, it will have odd formatting:

Pericardial Diseases
? ? ? ? ACUTE PERICARDITIS o Inflammation of pericardium
? Idiopathic
? Secondary
?? ? ?Viral (Coxsackie; Flu; E-B; Mumps; Varicella; HIV)
?? ? ?Bacteria (pneumonia; RF; staphs; streps; MAI in HIV)
?? ? ?Drugs (procainamide; hydralazine; penicillin; comolyn Na)
?? ? ?Others= Uraemia; RA; SLE; Myoedema; Trauma; Surgery; Malignancy o Clinical
? Central chest pain
? Worse when lying flat and on inspiration; Relieved sitting forward
? ?Fever
? Pericardial friction rub may be heard
? Look for pericardial effusion or cardiac tamponade o Tests
? ECG Concave ST elevation; May be normal
? Bloods FBC, ESR, U&E, Troponin (may be up); Viral serology; Cultures
? X-Ray Cardiomegaly (pleural effusion) o Treatment
? Analgesia (ibuprofen 400mg/8h PO)
? Treat cause
? Colchicine before steroids if relapse/continuing (15-40%
? ? ? ? PERICARDIAL EFFUSION o Accumulation of fluid in pericardial sac (same causes as pericarditis) o Clinical
? Dyspnoea
? Raised JVP
? Bronchial breathing at L base
? Look for cardiac tamponade signs o Diagnosis
? CXR Enlarged globular heart
? ECG Low voltage/alternating QRS
? Echo Echo free zone around heart o Management
? Treat cause
? Pericardiocentesis (diagnostic or therapeutic)
? ? ? ? CONSTRICTIVE PERICARDITIS o Heart encased in rigid pericardium o Clinical features
? Raised JVP; Kussmaul's sign
? Soft, diffuse apex beat
? Quiet heart sounds

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