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Pericardial Diseases Notes

This is a sample of our (approximately) 3 page long Pericardial Diseases notes, which we sell as part of the Clinical Cardiology Notes collection, a 2:1 package written at Bristol University in 2014 that contains (approximately) 39 pages of notes across 18 different documents.

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Pericardial Diseases Revision

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Pericardial Diseases
    ACUTE PERICARDITIS o Inflammation of pericardium
 Idiopathic
 Secondary
  Viral (Coxsackie; Flu; E-B; Mumps; Varicella; HIV)
  Bacteria (pneumonia; RF; staphs; streps; MAI in HIV)
  Drugs (procainamide; hydralazine; penicillin; comolyn Na)
  Others= Uraemia; RA; SLE; Myoedema; Trauma; Surgery; Malignancy o Clinical
 Central chest pain
 Worse when lying flat and on inspiration; Relieved sitting forward
 ?Fever
 Pericardial friction rub may be heard
 Look for pericardial effusion or cardiac tamponade o Tests
 ECG Concave ST elevation; May be normal
 Bloods FBC, ESR, U&E, Troponin (may be up); Viral serology; Cultures
 X-Ray Cardiomegaly (pleural effusion) o Treatment
 Analgesia (ibuprofen 400mg/8h PO)
 Treat cause
 Colchicine before steroids if relapse/continuing (15-40%
recur)
    PERICARDIAL EFFUSION o Accumulation of fluid in pericardial sac (same causes as pericarditis) o Clinical
 Dyspnoea
 Raised JVP
 Bronchial breathing at L base
 Look for cardiac tamponade signs o Diagnosis
 CXR Enlarged globular heart
 ECG Low voltage/alternating QRS
 Echo Echo free zone around heart o Management
 Treat cause
 Pericardiocentesis (diagnostic or therapeutic)
    CONSTRICTIVE PERICARDITIS o Heart encased in rigid pericardium o Clinical features
 RHF
 Raised JVP; Kussmaul's sign
 Soft, diffuse apex beat
 Quiet heart sounds

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