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Valvular Heart Disease Notes

Medicine Notes > Clinical Cardiology Notes

This is an extract of our Valvular Heart Disease document, which we sell as part of our Clinical Cardiology Notes collection written by the top tier of Bristol University students.

The following is a more accessble plain text extract of the PDF sample above, taken from our Clinical Cardiology Notes. Due to the challenges of extracting text from PDFs, it will have odd formatting:

MITRAL VALVE o

o

Mitral stenosis
? Causes
?? ? ?Rheumatic (COMMONEST)
?? ? ?Congenital
?? ? ?Mucopolysaccharidoses (metabolic disorders= absence of enzymes)
?? ? ?Endocardial fibroelastoses
?? ? ?Prosthetic valve
? Presentation (symptomatic when orifice <2cm2)
?? ? ?Dyspnoea
?? ? ?Fatigue
?? ? ?Palpitations
?? ? ?Chest pain
?? ? ?Systemic emboli; Haemoptysis; Chronic bronchitis
? Signs
?? ? ?Malar flush
?? ? ?Low-volume pulse
?? ? ?AF
?? ? ?Tapping, non-displaced apex
?? ? ?Auscultation= Loud S1; Rumbling mid diastolic murmur
? Tests
? ? ? ? ECG AF; P mitrale; RVH
? ? ? ? CXR L atrial enlargement; Pulmonary oedema; Mitral valve calc.
? ? ? ? Echo Diagnostic (as is cardiac catheter)
? Management
?? ? ?Medication= rate control; warfarin; diuretics
?? ? ?Balloon valvuloplasty
?? ? ?Surgery (presence of gradient by cath >4mmHG) o Open mitral valvotomy/commissurotomy o Valve replacement
? Complications
?? ? ?Pulmonary hypertension
?? ? ?Emboli Mitral regurgitation
? Causes
?? ? ?Functional (LV dilatation)
?? ? ?Annular calc.
?? ? ?Rheumatic fever
?? ? ?IE
?? ? ?MV prolapse
?? ? ?Ruptured cordae tendinae
?? ? ?Papillary muscle dysfunction/rupture
?? ? ?CTDs
?? ? ?Cardiomyopathy
?? ? ?Congenital
?? ? ?Appetite suppressants

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