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Valvular Heart Disease Notes

This is a sample of our (approximately) 4 page long Valvular Heart Disease notes, which we sell as part of the Clinical Cardiology Notes collection, a 2:1 package written at Bristol University in 2014 that contains (approximately) 39 pages of notes across 18 different documents.

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Valvular Heart Disease Revision

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MITRAL VALVE o

o

Mitral stenosis
 Causes
  Rheumatic (COMMONEST)
  Congenital
  Mucopolysaccharidoses (metabolic disorders= absence of enzymes)
  Endocardial fibroelastoses
  Prosthetic valve
 Presentation (symptomatic when orifice <2cm2)
  Dyspnoea
  Fatigue
  Palpitations
  Chest pain
  Systemic emboli; Haemoptysis; Chronic bronchitis
 Signs
  Malar flush
  Low-volume pulse
  AF
  Tapping, non-displaced apex
  Auscultation= Loud S1; Rumbling mid diastolic murmur
 Tests
    ECG AF; P mitrale; RVH
    CXR L atrial enlargement; Pulmonary oedema; Mitral valve calc.
    Echo Diagnostic (as is cardiac catheter)
 Management
  Medication= rate control; warfarin; diuretics
  Balloon valvuloplasty
  Surgery (presence of gradient by cath >4mmHG) o Open mitral valvotomy/commissurotomy o Valve replacement
 Complications
  Pulmonary hypertension
  Emboli Mitral regurgitation
 Causes
  Functional (LV dilatation)
  Annular calc.
  Rheumatic fever
  IE
  MV prolapse
  Ruptured cordae tendinae
  Papillary muscle dysfunction/rupture
  CTDs
  Cardiomyopathy
  Congenital
  Appetite suppressants

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