Valvular Heart Disease Notes
This is a sample of our (approximately) 4 page long Valvular Heart Disease notes, which we sell as part of the Clinical Cardiology Notes collection, a 2:1 package written at Bristol University in 2014 that contains (approximately) 39 pages of notes across 18 different documents.
The original file is a 'Word (Doc)' whilst this sample is a 'PDF' representation of said file. This means that the formatting here may have errors. The original document you'll receive on purchase should have more polished formatting.
Valvular Heart Disease Revision
The following is a plain text extract of the PDF sample above, taken from our Clinical Cardiology Notes. This text version has had its formatting removed so pay attention to its contents alone rather than its presentation. The version you download will have its original formatting intact and so will be much prettier to look at.
Valvular Heart Disease Aortic Valve
Tri-leaflet structure Usual pathology is either: o Calcification with functional and structural stenosis or o Destruction of the leaflets with resultant insufficiency Aortic Stenosis (AS)
Causes o Senile calcific stenosis o Calcification of a congenital (bicuspid) valve o Rheumatic heart disease (secondary to RF i)
Pathology o CONCENTRIC LEFT VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY o Ventricular dilatation as a result of outflow obstruction
Symptoms include o SOB o Angina o Syncope o Those of CHF - orthopnoea, PND, oedema
Signs include a o Holo-systolic murmur at the right second ICS radiating to the carotids o Weak and delayed peripheral pulses
Invesitgations o CXR shows minimal changes initially but cardiomegaly later o Diagnosis is by ECHO and if +ve then cardiac catheterisation (inc pressure across valve)
Indications for surgery: o Symptoms o Increase in left ventricular end systolic volume o Procedure of choice is Aortic Valve Replacement (AVR), repair may be done rarely and with poor short term results. AVR may be accomplished with either a mechanical or bioprosthetic heart valve. Prognosis poor - life expectancy 2-3 years, the greatest risk is that of sudden cardiac death. Aortic Regurgitation / Insufficiency (AI)
Casues o (>40) aortic degeneration o (<40 y/o) Marfan's syndrome
Most frequently presents in combination with Aortic Stenosis. Other aetiologies incl.: o Endocarditis o Aneurysm o Congenital (bicuspid) o Luetic o Traumatic o Rheumatic o Atherosclerotic o Ankylosing spondylitis o Dissection o Iatrogenic
Symptoms usually include: o SOB
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