This is an extract of our Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease document, which we sell as part of our Clinical Respiratory Notes collection written by the top tier of Bristol University students.
The following is a more accessble plain text extract of the PDF sample above, taken from our Clinical Respiratory Notes. Due to the challenges of extracting text from PDFs, it will have odd formatting:
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)??Epidemiology o 3 million in UK o 35+
o 900,000 diagnosed, further 2 million undiagnosed o Insidious development symptoms o Most not diagnosed until 50s Background o Predominately caused by smoking (other things inc. open fires, pollutants, asthma)
? Not fully reversible
? Asthma should be 400ml change (20%), but no change for COPD
? Does not change markedly over several months
? Usually progressive in long term o Exacerbations often occur where there is rapid and sustained worsening of symptoms beyond normal day-to-day variation requiring a change in treatment Definition o Airflow obstruction= reduced FEV1/FVC ratio (<0.8)
? FEV1 decreased; FVC reduced/normal o No longer necessary to have FEV<80% predicted
? If not diagnosis only by resp. symptoms Diagnosis o Consider if
? >35, and
? Smoker/Ex-smoker, and
? Has symptoms
? Exertional breathlessness o Flight stairs?/How far?
? Chronic cough
? Regular sputum production (yellow/green)
? Frequent winter 'bronchitis'
? No clinical features of asthma
? Exacerbations= Symptoms >3 months for 2 years/3 exacerbations a year o Spirometry
? Perform if COPD likely
? Presence of airflow obstruction should be confirmed by performing post-bronchodilator spirometry
? Do spirometry
? 10 puffs salbutamol inhaler using spacer
? Redo spirometry
? Asthma= goes up by 400ml (COPD no change) Differentiating COPD from asthma CLINICAL FEATURES COPD ASTHMA Smoker or ex-smoker Nearly all Possible Symptoms <35 Rare Often
Buy the full version of these notes or essay plans and more in our Clinical Respiratory Notes.