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Diabetes Basics Notes

This is a sample of our (approximately) 4 page long Diabetes Basics notes, which we sell as part of the Diabetes (clinical) Notes collection, a 1st package written at Bristol University in 2014 that contains (approximately) 11 pages of notes across 4 different documents.

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Diabetes Basics Revision

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Diabetes Basics
Glucose o Ubiquitous fuel in biology
 Energy source for most organisms o Critical in production of proteins and fats o Body's key energy source in aerobic respiration o Oxidised to form CO2 and H2O= energy as ATP
Normal fasting blood glucose range=3.5-5.6mmol/L o Over 7= DIABETES o Between 5.6 and 6.9= IMPAIRED FASTING GLYCAEMIA o Patient with abnormal fasting glucose should repeat test or have an oral glucose tolerance test
Organs and tissues involved in maintaining glucose balance o PANCREAS
 Alpha cells
Glucagon
25%
Periphery
 Beta cells
Insulin o Meal-->Increased glucose o Glucose into B cells by glut-1 transporter o Glucose broken down by mitochondria to ATP o ATP has 2 effects

1. ATP shuts of K+
channel->Depolarisation-->Ca channel opens->Ca into cells-->Vesicles exocytosed
-->Insulin released

2. ATP stimulates transcription factors->Transcript more insulin-->More insulin release o When initially released= PROINSULIN (inactive)

60%
Centre Delta cells
Somatostatin

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