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Diabetes Basics Notes

Medicine Notes > Diabetes (clinical) Notes

This is an extract of our Diabetes Basics document, which we sell as part of our Diabetes (clinical) Notes collection written by the top tier of Bristol University students.

The following is a more accessble plain text extract of the PDF sample above, taken from our Diabetes (clinical) Notes. Due to the challenges of extracting text from PDFs, it will have odd formatting:

Diabetes Basics
?????Glucose o Ubiquitous fuel in biology
? Energy source for most organisms o Critical in production of proteins and fats o Body's key energy source in aerobic respiration o Oxidised to form CO2 and H2O= energy as ATP
?????Normal fasting blood glucose range=3.5-5.6mmol/L o Over 7= DIABETES o Between 5.6 and 6.9= IMPAIRED FASTING GLYCAEMIA o Patient with abnormal fasting glucose should repeat test or have an oral glucose tolerance test
?????Organs and tissues involved in maintaining glucose balance o PANCREAS
? Alpha cells
?????Glucagon
?????25%
?????Periphery
? Beta cells
?????Insulin o Meal-->Increased glucose o Glucose into B cells by glut-1 transporter o Glucose broken down by mitochondria to ATP o ATP has 2 effects

1. ATP shuts of K+
channel->Depolarisation-->Ca channel opens->Ca into cells-->Vesicles exocytosed
-->Insulin released

2. ATP stimulates transcription factors->Transcript more insulin-->More insulin release o When initially released= PROINSULIN (inactive)?????60%
?????Centre Delta cells
?????Somatostatin

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