This is a sample of our (approximately) 13 page long Cardiology notes, which we sell as part of the Medicine and Surgery Notes collection, a 2.1 package written at Bristol University in 2011 that contains (approximately) 143 page of notes across 7 different document.
The original file is a 'Word (Docx)' whilst this sample is a 'PDF' representation of said file. This means that the formatting here may have errors. The original document you'll receive on purchase should have more polished formatting.
The following is a plain text extract of the PDF sample above, taken from our Medicine and Surgery Notes. This text version has had its formatting removed so pay attention to its contents alone rather than its presentation. The version you download will have its original formatting intact and so will be much prettier to look at.
Medicine & Surgery Cardiology Essential anatomy
? Sinus node o Generates impulses automatically by spontaneous depolarisation of its membrane o Pacemaker o Influx of sodium controls the depolarisation
o The rate of depolarisation is controlled by: autonomic tone, stretch, temp, hypoxia, pH
? Atrial & ventricular myocyte action potentials o Different to sinus node cells o Arrival of AP opens Na channels resulting in a fast depolarisation Cardiac Cycle
Cardiac arrhythmias Bradycardia<60bpm Tachycardia>100bpm
? Ventricular Sinus rhythm
Mechanisms of arrhythmia production Sinus bradycardia - slow automacity Bradycadia due to AV block - abnormal conduction in the AV node
? Accelerated automacity o Reducing the threshold potential o Increasing the rate of diastolic depolarization
? Triggered activity o Myocardial damage can lead to oscillations in the transmembrane potential o These 'after depolarisations' may reach the threshold and produce an arrhythmia
Heart block Atrioventricular block First-degree block Prolonged PR interval by more than 0.22s Second-degree block Some p waves occur but others do not
? Mobitz I block (Wenckebach) o Progressive PR interval prolongation until P waves fail to conduct
? Mobitz II block o Every now and then, there is a dropped QRS
? 2:1or3:1 o Where every second or third P wave conducts the ventricles
3 rd degree (complete) block When all activity fails to conduct to the ventricles No relationship between P waves and QRS complexes P waves ~90/min QRS ~36/min
Bundle Branch Block Normal PR interval Widened QRS complex RBBB Late activation of the right ventricle MARROW Late activation of the left ventricle WILLIAM
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