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Medicine & Surgery Notes

This is a sample of our (approximately) 78 page long Medicine & Surgery notes, which we sell as part of the Medicine and Surgery Notes collection, a 2.1 package written at Bristol University in 2011 that contains (approximately) 143 pages of notes across 7 different documents.

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Medicine & Surgery Cardiology Essential anatomy  Sinus node o Generates impulses automatically by spontaneous depolarisation of its membrane o Pacemaker o Influx of sodium controls the depolarisation

o The rate of depolarisation is controlled by: autonomic tone, stretch, temp, hypoxia, pH  Atrial & ventricular myocyte action potentials o Different to sinus node cells o Arrival of AP opens Na channels resulting in a fast depolarisation Cardiac Cycle

Cardiac arrhythmias Bradycardia100bpm  Supraventricular  Ventricular

Sinus rhythm

Mechanisms of arrhythmia production Sinus bradycardia - slow automacity Bradycadia due to AV block - abnormal conduction in the AV node  Accelerated automacity o Reducing the threshold potential o Increasing the rate of diastolic depolarization
 Triggered activity o Myocardial damage can lead to oscillations in the transmembrane potential o These 'after depolarisations' may reach the threshold and produce an arrhythmia

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