This is a sample of our (approximately) 5 page long Urology notes, which we sell as part of the Medicine and Surgery Notes collection, a 2.1 package written at Bristol University in 2011 that contains (approximately) 143 pages of notes across 7 different documents.
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The following is a plain text extract of the PDF sample above, taken from our Medicine and Surgery Notes. This text version has had its formatting removed so pay attention to its contents alone rather than its presentation. The version you download will have its original formatting intact and so will be much prettier to look at.
Medicine & Surgery Urology Pathophysiology of Glomerular Filtration GFR = KS [(PGC - PT) - ( π GC - πT)]
K = permeability of glomerular membrane
↑ in nephrotic syndrome. Leads to ↑ GFR S = surface area of glomerular membrane
↓ when a kidney is removed; effective surface area falls if there is reduced renal blood flow (e.g. through partial blockage of a renal artery). Both situations lead to ↓GFR PGC = hydrostatic pressure in glomerular capillaries
↓ when systemic blood pressure falls or when blood is diverted away from kidney. Leads to ↓
GFR (and vice versa)
PT = hydrostatic pressure in tubule (i.e. Bowman's capsule)
↑ if a blockage exists in renal tubules; e.g. kidney stone; tumour in, or close to, kidney. Leads to ↓ GFR because of 'back pressure'
πGC = colloid osmotic pressure (C.O.P.) in glomerular capillaries
↓ in nephrotic syndrome, liver disease, malnutrition. All lead to ↑ GFR
π T = C.O.P. in tubular fluid
↑ in nephrotic syndrome. Leads to ↑ GFR Type of Diuretic
Site of Action
Mechanism of Action
Route of Administration
Furosemide Bumetanide Torasemide
Thick ascending segment of loop of Henle
Oral IV Intramuscular
Acute pulmonary oedema Oliguria due to acute renal failure Hypertension
Severe renal impairment Cardiac glycosides
Hypokalaemia Hyponatraemia Hyperuricaemia Hypotension Hypovolaemia
Chlorothiazide Bendroflumethazide Metolazone
Inhibits Na+/K+/2Cl+ cotransporter Increasing the amount of sodium reaching the collecting duct Increases K+ and H+ secretion Inhibits Na+/Cltransport Increases K+ and H+ secretion and decreases Ca2+
Oral 1-2 hours
Hypertension Oedema secondary to CHF Liver disease Nephrotic syndrome
Hypokalaemia Hyponatraemia Hypocalcaemia Cardiac glycosides Diabetes mellitus, may cause hyperglycaemia
Hypokalaemia Hyponatraemia Hyperuricaemia Hypercalcaemia
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