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Antidepressant Drugs Notes

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This is an extract of our Antidepressant Drugs document, which we sell as part of our Neurology Notes collection written by the top tier of Bristol University students.

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Lecture 45 Antidepressant Drugs



Types of mood/affective disorder o Depression (monopolar)
? Symptoms

* Emotional- Mood; Thought disorder

* Biological- Anhedonia (failure to feel reward)

* Cognitive- Difficulty decision making; Poor concentration
? Drug treatments aim to improve mood and motivational impairments o Mania (monopolar) and bipolar disorder
? Symptoms

* Sleep changes

* Excessive exuberance, enthusiasm and confidence, grandiosity

* Increased libido

* Behaviours inappropriate to circumstances

* Disorders of thought (psychosis)
? Drugs aim to control excessive oscillations in mood Depression o Causes
? Chemical imbalance

* Monoamine theory (transmitters are dysfunctional)

* Functional deficit in 5-HT and/or NA (possibly DA)
? Neurodegenerative

* Neural apoptosis and neurogenesis
? Immune response (sickness behaviour)
? Genes
? Environment (stress) o Treatments
? Pharmacological

* Enhance monoamine levels in CNS o Post-synaptic agonist (Buspirone- not antidepressant) o Pre-synaptic receptor antagonist (e.g. Mirtazipine) o MAO inhibitors (Moclobemide=reversible; phenylzine) o Re-uptake inhibitors (e.g. fluoxetine, venlafaxine) o Reuptake=most common target area

* Specific receptor agonists/antagonists
? Cognitive behavioural therapy

* No use of pharmacological substances

* Mild to moderate; used in first instance
? Neurological interventions

* Electroconvulsive shock therapy (lift to level drugs can be used; memory loss problems)

* Deep brain stimulation

* Vagal nerve stimulation o Classes of antidepressants
? Typical (TCA and specific re-uptake inhibitors)


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