General Anaesthetics Notes
This is a sample of our (approximately) 4 page long General Anaesthetics notes, which we sell as part of the Neurology Notes collection, a 70-80% package written at Bristol University in 2012 that contains (approximately) 117 pages of notes across 36 different documents.
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General Anaesthetics Revision
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Lecture 13 General anaesthetics
Examples o Injection/Intravenous Anaesthetics
Propofol (better than above)
Ketamine (dissociative anaesthetic) o Inhalation anesthetics
Isoflurane, desflurane, sevoflurane (halothane) Effects o Loss of consciousness (not asleep) o Analgesia (many, but not all, produce pain relief) o Muscle relaxation (important in surgery) o Associated with loss of reflexes Stages of anaesthesia (occur with increasing drug in brain) o STAGE 1- ANALGESIA
Drowsiness (not yet unconscious) o STAGE 2- EXCITEMENT
Loss of consciousness
Respiration is irregular, patient is thrashing (unwanted)
Need to get through this stage as quickly as possible o STAGE 3- SURGICAL ANAESTHESIA
Decline in muscle tone
Loss of reflexes (planes o STAGE 4- MEDULLARY PARALYSIS
Too much general anaesthetic
Stop breathing=death Drug combinations o Premedication- sedative o Rapid induction- propofol, thiopental (anaesthesia induced) o Maintenance of anaesthesia- isoflurane, nitrous oxide o Analgesic supplement- opiate (give during anaesthesia to stop pain going to spinal cord that causes adaptation which would cause pain after surgery) o Muscle relaxant- NMJ blocking agent e.g. atracurium o Muscarinic antagonist- Atropine (operations could increase secretion as PSNS stimulate, so atropine) o (Anticholinesterase) Mechanisms of action (not certain) o No structure activity relationship o No obvious receptor they would all bind to o Unitary theory
• Membrane expansion o GA dissolves into lipid membrane and expands lipid
• Membrane fluidity
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