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Introduction To The Nervous System Notes

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Lecture 1 Introduction to the Nervous System

Basic organisation of the NS o SENSORY PNS (all lead to CNS)
 Sensory NS

• Somatic and special sensory receptors on neurons
 Afferent NS

• Autonomic sensory receptors and neurons
 Efferent NS

• Sensory receptors in GI tract and enteric plexus

• leads to motor neurons too o MOTOR PNS EFFECTORS
 Somatic motor neurons (voluntary) Skeletal muscle
 Autonomic motor neurons (involuntary) SNS & PSNS divisions

•  Smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands and adipose tissue

•  Enteric motor neurons (involuntary) in enteric plexuses (MOTOR PNS) o Smooth muscle, glands, and endocrine cells of GI tract Synaptic transmission (sequence of events) o Action potential at axon terminal o Ca2+ channels openIncrease intracellular Ca2+ conc.= Neurotransmitter released o Neurotransmitter diffuses across synaptic cleft and binds to specific receptors o Postsynaptic potential generated
 Na+= depolarisation= EPSP (Excitatory PostSynaptic Potential)
 Cl-= hyperpolarisation= IPSP (Inhibitory PostSynaptic Potential) o Local currents spread along cell membrane Comparison of nervous and endocrine systems o Mediator molecules
 NS= Neurotransmitters released in response to nerve impulses
 ES= Hormones delivered to tissues throughout body by blood o Cells affected
 NS= Muscles, glands, other neurons
 ES= Virtually all body cells o Time of onset of action
 NS= Typically milliseconds
 ES= Seconds to hours to days o Duration of action
 NS= Generally brief
 ES= Generally longer Heterogeneity of chemical signals in the NS o Msec-Sec
 Impulse conduction
 Transmitter release
 Fast synaptic transmission o Sec-Min
 Slow synaptic transmission
 Neuromodulation o Min-Hour-Day
 Synaptic plasticity
 Delayed pharmacological effects

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