Introduction To The Nervous System Notes
This is a sample of our (approximately) 3 page long Introduction To The Nervous System notes, which we sell as part of the Neurology Notes collection, a 70-80% package written at Bristol University in 2012 that contains (approximately) 117 pages of notes across 36 different documents.
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Lecture 1 Introduction to the Nervous System
Basic organisation of the NS o SENSORY PNS (all lead to CNS)
• Somatic and special sensory receptors on neurons
• Autonomic sensory receptors and neurons
• Sensory receptors in GI tract and enteric plexus
• leads to motor neurons too o MOTOR PNS EFFECTORS
Somatic motor neurons (voluntary) Skeletal muscle
Autonomic motor neurons (involuntary) SNS & PSNS divisions
• Smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands and adipose tissue
• Enteric motor neurons (involuntary) in enteric plexuses (MOTOR PNS) o Smooth muscle, glands, and endocrine cells of GI tract Synaptic transmission (sequence of events) o Action potential at axon terminal o Ca2+ channels openIncrease intracellular Ca2+ conc.= Neurotransmitter released o Neurotransmitter diffuses across synaptic cleft and binds to specific receptors o Postsynaptic potential generated
Na+= depolarisation= EPSP (Excitatory PostSynaptic Potential)
Cl-= hyperpolarisation= IPSP (Inhibitory PostSynaptic Potential) o Local currents spread along cell membrane Comparison of nervous and endocrine systems o Mediator molecules
NS= Neurotransmitters released in response to nerve impulses
ES= Hormones delivered to tissues throughout body by blood o Cells affected
NS= Muscles, glands, other neurons
ES= Virtually all body cells o Time of onset of action
NS= Typically milliseconds
ES= Seconds to hours to days o Duration of action
NS= Generally brief
ES= Generally longer Heterogeneity of chemical signals in the NS o Msec-Sec
Fast synaptic transmission o Sec-Min
Slow synaptic transmission
Neuromodulation o Min-Hour-Day
Delayed pharmacological effects
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