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Cardiovascular System Notes

Medicine Notes > Pre Clinical Systems Based Teaching Notes

This is an extract of our Cardiovascular System document, which we sell as part of our Pre Clinical Systems Based Teaching Notes collection written by the top tier of Bristol University students.

The following is a more accessble plain text extract of the PDF sample above, taken from our Pre Clinical Systems Based Teaching Notes. Due to the challenges of extracting text from PDFs, it will have odd formatting:

Cardiovascular System Homeostasis & Haemodynamics Functions Rapid connective transport of nutrients and waste products Transport of hormones Temperature regulation Reproduction

Pump Endocardium - inner layer Myocardium - muscle layer [cardiac (striated) muscle]
Pericardium - fibrous sack Annulus fibrosus - insulator Atria Thin walled, venous blood, primer pumps [top up filing of ventricles], produce ANP [atrial natriuretic peptide] increasing secretions of sodium Valves 4 valves, in annulus fibrosis, prevent backflow, closure of valves = heart sounds, endocarditis = valve infection Ventricles Eject blood into arterial systems; left thicker than right to generate higher pressures, left ventricular contraction produces the 'apex' beat ? midclavicular line, 5th intercostals space

Cardiac auscultation 1st heart sound = closure of tricuspid mitral valves 2nd heart sound = closure of aortic and pulmonary valves, physiological splitting 'dubba'

Endocarditis Valve infection 4-50% mortality Poor dental hygiene/dental procedures Antibiotic prophylaxis Systole - phase of contraction Diastole - phase of relaxation Stroke volume - amount of blood pumped by each beat ~ 80ml Cardiac Output [Q] = heart rate X stroke volume rest ~ 5L/min The volume of blood ejected from the heart per minute

Blood vessels Lumen - contains blood Tunica intima - helps maintain blood fluidity, loss of endothelium causes blood to clot Tunica media - contains collagen for strength, elastin for stretching and smooth muscle to control diameter Tunica adventitia - sticks to the BV surrounding tissues

Circulation of blood Pulmonary - low resistance, low pressure Systemic - high resistance, high pressure

Large elastic arteries Collagen and elastin in tunica media allows BV to stretch

and

=

Muscular arteries Brachia and radial arteries Tunica media rich in smooth muscle Distribution vessels Structure prevents kinking of vessels at joints

Arterioles Microscopic diameter<100um Resistance vessels Extensive amounts of smooth muscle in tunica media Sympathetic nervous system

Capillaries Diameter ~ 7um Single layer of endothelium upon BM Exchange vessels Production of tissue fluid

Venules Drain blood away from capillaries Diameter upto 50um

Veins Valves prevent backflow of blood 2/3 of blood volume found here Sympathetic nervous system Venoconstrict

Haemodynamics The flow (Q) through a tube is directly proportional to the pressure gradient ( P) and inversely proportional to the resistance (R) of the vessels Mean arterial pressure - central venous pressue =
cardiac output X total peripheral resistance

Poiseille's Law R = resistance
i = fluid viscosity l = length of tube r = radius of tube

Tubes in series Flow through each tube must be the same Total resistance is the sum of all individual resistance Pressure will drop along the sequence

Flow patterns LAMINAR

Blood at the wall flows slower than at the centre Quiet

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