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Diuretics Notes

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This is an extract of our Diuretics document, which we sell as part of our Renal System Notes collection written by the top tier of Bristol University students.

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Lecture 16 Diuretics



General o Classified in 5 groups
? POTASSIUM SPARING o Why diuretics?
? Heart failure

* Activation of rennin-angiotensin system

* Retention of sodium and water/increase in blood volume

* Elevated venous pressure- pulmonary and systemic oedema
? Hypertension

* High renin-angiotensin release and vasoconstriction, aldosterone secretion and salt retention

* Low renin-sodium retention due to increased sympathetic adrenergic activity or a defect in sodium-couple calcium transport
? Other oedema

* Renal-nephrotic syndrome, renal failure

* Liver failure OSMOTIC DIURETICS- MANNITOL, UREA o Elevate osmotic pressure of glomerular filtrate to an extent that tubular reabsorption of water and solutes (mainly Na) are hindered o Mannitol
? Indications

* Oliguric acute renal failure

* During CVS surgery

* Reduction of intracranial pressure prior to and during neurosurgery

* During any surgery for patients with poor renal function

* Treat acute toxicities with so drugs such as barbiturates, salicylates, imipramine

*Treat oedema & ascitis of nephrotic, cirrhotic, and cardiac origin

Precautions and contraindications

* Patients with shock & oliguria: mannitol should not be given until fluid, plasma, blood, and electrolytes have been replaced


It is contraindicated in well established renal failure o


A test dose is usually given before use


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