Medicine Notes > Bristol University Medicine Notes > Respiratory System Notes

Bronchodilators Notes

This is a sample of our (approximately) 3 page long Bronchodilators notes, which we sell as part of the Respiratory System Notes collection, a 60-70% package written at Bristol University in 2012 that contains (approximately) 49 pages of notes across 17 different documents.

Learn more about our Respiratory System Notes

The original file is a 'Word (Docx)' whilst this sample is a 'PDF' representation of said file. This means that the formatting here may have errors. The original document you'll receive on purchase should have more polished formatting.

Bronchodilators Revision

The following is a plain text extract of the PDF sample above, taken from our Respiratory System Notes. This text version has had its formatting removed so pay attention to its contents alone rather than its presentation. The version you download will have its original formatting intact and so will be much prettier to look at.

Clinical effects/use BRONCHODILATO RS B2adrenoreceptor agonists (BAAs)

Adverse effects

Mechanism of action


Activate B2-adrenoreceptor o Increases intracellular cAMP o Activates K+ channel o Activates Na+/K+ ATPase o Reduces Ca2+ dependent coupling of actin and myosin Inhibits cholinergic neurotransmission o Activate muscarinic receptors= smooth muscle contraction

Unclear Inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases o Inhibit type IV PDE o Increasing cAMP/cGMP levels- SM relaxation Interaction with G proteins Antagonise adenosine receptors Stimulates CNS/ respiratory centres

Cholinergic stimulation o Increases SM contraction/
secretion (M3 receptors)

Xanthine drugs

Bronchodilatation (most effective) o Increased density of receptors on smooth muscles of trachea to small bronchioles Other effects o Inhibit release of histamine and other inflammatory mediators o Reduce vascular permeability &
mucosal oedema In addition to steroids in patients non-responsive to BAAs In acute severe asthma

Muscarinic receptor antagonists


Inhibits mucus secretion Ineffective against late phase asthma Used as adjunct to BAAs/steroids

Generally avoided as given via inhaler Tachycardia and palpitations Pulmonary vasodilatation

Narrow therapeutic window o 30-100µmol/L= Benefit o >120µmol/L= Adverse o >200µmol/L=
Significant adverse CNS effects o Insomnia, nervousness, seizures CVS effects o Palpitations, tachy, dysrythmia Minimal side effects

Nausea, sleeplessness, flu,

Act on 5-lipo-oxygenase pathway

Short acting: SALBUTAMOL & TERBU o Max. effect in 30 mins o Duration= 3-5 hours o Used "as needed" Long acting: SALMETEROL &
FORMOTEROL o Duration= 8-12 hours o Twice daily o Adjunctive therapy in patients wi chronic asthma Non selective: ISOPRENALINE &
ADRENALINE o Severe asthma

Theophyline o Oral o Metabolises P450 enzymes in liv Drugs induce P450 enzymes red action and vice-versa Aminophyline o Slow IV followed by infusion

Ipratropium Bromide (Atrovent) o Administration: Aerosol intake, n absorbed, max. effect in 30 mins 5h Tiotropium o Longer acting, used in COPD Zileutin

****************************End Of Sample*****************************

Buy the full version of these notes or essay plans and more in our Respiratory System Notes.