This is an extract of our Clinical Aspects Of Respiratory Infections document, which we sell as part of our Respiratory System Notes collection written by the top tier of Bristol University students.
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Lecture 3 Clinical aspects of respiratory infections
Pneumonia causes 10Xxmore deaths than all other infectious diseases together (UK) o Cause usually bacterial, need antibiotics o Most infections of URT are viral, do not need antibiotics
? Inappropriate antibiotic treatment in patients=adverse effects o When patient first seen, rare for organism to be identified. Physician's determine:
? How ill patient is
? Likely site of infection in tract
? Most likely causative organism o Decision about antibiotics, hospital admission etc. Is antibiotic treatment indicated?
o Upper respiratory tract infections
? Cough, sore throat or runny nose (& systemic symptoms)
? Usually viral, self-limiting or minor
? Important rate exceptions
* Epiglottitis (Rapid progressive condition in children, Haemophilus influenza type b, Stridor, muffling of voice and drooling)
* Diphtheria (grey adherent membrane on pharynx)
* Suspicion of either condition=hospital admission o Acute bronchitis
? Cough, purulent sputum
? Viral or bacterial or atypical organism (mycoplasm or Chlamydia species)
? Antibiotics do not hasten resolution if previously fit
? Antibiotics recommended in patients with underlying lung diseases, have less pulmonary reserve
? Acute-on-chronic bronchitis most common organisms Haemophilius influenza, Streptococcus pneumonia and viruses o Pneumonia
? "Lower respiratory tract infection"= cough, dyspnoea, tachypnoea, pleuritic pain or physical signs in chest (crackles, consolidation, pleural rub/effusion)
? Pneumonia or incipient pneumonia
? Antibiotic treatment Which antibiotic?
? Choice in pneumonia depends mainly on clinical circumstances it occurs in
? Additional info from clinical history, physical findings, radiology &
haematological changes, but no single clinical, radiological or haematological picture is pathognomonic of any individual organism
? Treatment based on clinical situations associated with different organisms o Community acquired pneumonia
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