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Micronutrients Notes

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This is an extract of our Micronutrients document, which we sell as part of our Biochemistry Notes collection written by the top tier of Oxford students.

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Micronutrients Vitamins 1) Niacin:
-Precursor of nicotinamide - this is a cofactor of NAD+, NADP+ in many dehydrogenase reactions
-50% synthesised in body from tryptophan
-Deficiency results in Pellagra-skin rash, diarrhoea, delirium 2) Riboflavin
-Precursor of FAD, FMN-this is component of dehydrogenase (succinate dehydrogenase), complexes of mitochondrial electron transport chain
-Deficiency results in relatively minor consequence- angular stomatitis (inflammation of the corners of the lips), cheilosis, atrophy of papillae of tongue, anaemia 3) Pyridoxine
-Precurosr of Pyridoxal phosphate
-Cofactor for transaminases (amino acid metabolism) and decarboxylation reactions (neurotransmitters)
-Deficiency usually is in combination with other vitamins: weakness, peripheral neuropathy, dermatitis, cheilosis, anaemia, glossitis, impaired immunity, seizures 4) Thiamine
-Precursor of thiamine pyrophosphate-cofactor in alpha ketoacid dehydrogenase (e.g pyruvate dehydrogenase), transketolase (part of the pentose phosphate shunt)
-Two forms of deficiency
-Beri-beri: High output cardiac failure
-Wernike Korsakoff syndrome (alcoholism) : External opthalmoplegia, lowered consciousness, loss of memory 5) Folic acid
-Exists in number of different forms- all are involved in 1 carbon transfer reactions
-Active forms are derivatives of tetrahydrofolate (reduced form of folate)

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