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Organisation Of The Genome Mutataions Notes

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This is an extract of our Organisation Of The Genome Mutataions document, which we sell as part of our Biochemistry Notes collection written by the top tier of Oxford students.

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Organisation of the genomeThere are two genomes in an eukaryote

Nuclear Genome
-linear chromosomes which are inherited from the mother and father
-23 number of different DNA molecules (XX cells), 24 DNA in (XY cell). In diploid cells there are a total of 46 DNA molecules
-associated with histone and non histone proteins
-21 OOO protein encoding genes, more than 6000 RNA genes- some RNA
-Large amount of repeats- satellite DNA- repeat units of 170 nucleotides, minisatellite (repeat units of 10-50 nucleotides, microsatellite (1,2,4 nucleotides
-1% of DNA codes for a protein, the rest codes for regulatory elements and intron Mitachondrial Genome
-has circular chromosomes and is inherited from the mother
-one circular DNA molecule. There are a thousand copies
-It encodes for 37 genes, 24 genes code for non coding RNA (22 tRNAs and 2 rRNAs) and only 13 polypeptides.
-no assoaciated histones
-genes are tightly clustered and don't contain introns
-66% of the DNA encodes for a protein
-majority of the mitochondrial proteome is encoded in the nucleus and peptides are imported into the mitochondria. Functions of non coding RNA
- tRNA -
- rRNA -
-snRNA -miRNADNA sequences

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