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Paediatrics Notes

Medicine Notes > Medicine and Surgery Pack Notes

This is an extract of our Paediatrics document, which we sell as part of our Medicine and Surgery Pack Notes collection written by the top tier of Peninsula Medical School students.

The following is a more accessble plain text extract of the PDF sample above, taken from our Medicine and Surgery Pack Notes. Due to the challenges of extracting text from PDFs, it will have odd formatting:

PAEDIATRICS Contents: Cardiology

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Cyanotic defects o Tetralogy of Fallot o Transposition of the great arteries o Tricuspid atresia o Hypoplastic left heart syndrome o Persistent truncus arteriosus o Total anomalous pulmonary venous return o Pulmonary atresia o Ebstein's anomaly Respiratory

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Bronchiolitis

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Cystic fibrosis Gastroenterology

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Meckel's diverticulum

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Pyloric stenosis

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CARDIOLOGY CYANOTIC DEFECTS Only right to left shunts cause cyanosis. The cyanotic defects in children are:

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Tetralogy of Fallot

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Transposition of the great arteries

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Tricuspid atresia

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Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

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Persistent truncus arteriosus

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Total anomalous pulmonary venous return

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Pulmonary atresia

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Ebstein's anomaly It is important to understand the fetal anatomy to have a good understanding of these conditions. Be aware of signs of decompensation:

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Poor feeding Dyspnoea Hepatomegaly Engorged neck veins Tachycardia or bradycardia Weak pulse Acidosis Pulmonary venous congestion

1. Tetralogy of Fallot Summary Points

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Tetralogy of Fallot is the presence of a ventricular septal defect, right ventricular hypertrophy, right ventricular outflow obstruction and an overriding aorta

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Patients are cyanosed, are classically dyspnoeic after prolonged crying, and failure to thrive

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It is confirmed by examination, ECG and ECHO

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It is managed surgically, usually with a Blalock-Taussig shunt Aetiology and Pathophysiology There are four abnormalities:

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Ventricular septal defect - usually large and just below the aortic valve

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Right ventricular hypertrophy

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Right ventricular outflow obstruction (usually pulmonary stenosis)

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Overriding aorta (lying over VSD) This causes mixing of blood, poor blood flow to lungs, poor blood flow to body and inadequate pumping of blood resulting in cyanosis.

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