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Paediatrics Notes

This is a sample of our (approximately) 32 page long Paediatrics notes, which we sell as part of the Medicine and Surgery Notes collection, a === Other === package written at Peninsula Medical School in 2011 that contains (approximately) 121 pages of notes across 6 different documents.

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PAEDIATRICS Contents: Cardiology


Cyanotic defects o Tetralogy of Fallot o Transposition of the great arteries o Tricuspid atresia o Hypoplastic left heart syndrome o Persistent truncus arteriosus o Total anomalous pulmonary venous return o Pulmonary atresia o Ebstein's anomaly Respiratory


Bronchiolitis


Cystic fibrosis Gastroenterology


Meckel's diverticulum


Pyloric stenosis

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CARDIOLOGY CYANOTIC DEFECTS Only right to left shunts cause cyanosis. The cyanotic defects in children are:


Tetralogy of Fallot


Transposition of the great arteries


Tricuspid atresia


Hypoplastic left heart syndrome


Persistent truncus arteriosus


Total anomalous pulmonary venous return


Pulmonary atresia


Ebstein's anomaly It is important to understand the fetal anatomy to have a good understanding of these conditions. Be aware of signs of decompensation:

Poor feeding Dyspnoea Hepatomegaly Engorged neck veins Tachycardia or bradycardia Weak pulse Acidosis Pulmonary venous congestion

1. Tetralogy of Fallot Summary Points


Tetralogy of Fallot is the presence of a ventricular septal defect, right ventricular hypertrophy, right ventricular outflow obstruction and an overriding aorta


Patients are cyanosed, are classically dyspnoeic after prolonged crying, and failure to thrive


It is confirmed by examination, ECG and ECHO


It is managed surgically, usually with a Blalock-Taussig shunt Aetiology and Pathophysiology There are four abnormalities:


Ventricular septal defect - usually large and just below the aortic valve


Right ventricular hypertrophy


Right ventricular outflow obstruction (usually pulmonary stenosis)


Overriding aorta (lying over VSD) This causes mixing of blood, poor blood flow to lungs, poor blood flow to body and inadequate pumping of blood resulting in cyanosis.

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