This is an extract of our Heart Failure document, which we sell as part of our Cardiology Notes collection written by the top tier of University Of Leicester students.
The following is a more accessble plain text extract of the PDF sample above, taken from our Cardiology Notes. Due to the challenges of extracting text from PDFs, it will have odd formatting:
Heart Failure Failure of the heart to maintain an adequate perfusion of the tissues despite adequate filling pressure Aetiology Causes of LHF
- Inadequate LV filling o Mitral stenosis
- Pressure overload o Aortic stenosis o Hypertension
- Volume overload o Aortic/mitral regurg. o High output HF
- LV muscle disease o MI o Cardiomyopathy
Causes of RHF
- As for LHF plus pulmonary hypertension
- Causes listed above lead to one or more of; o Myocyte loss o Increased afterload (pressure against which heart has to pump) o Volume overload Heart responds to this ventricular remodeling = myocardial hypertrophy +
ventricular dilation Initially process is adaptive as it decreases wall stress and maintains cardiac output Eventually Decreased ventricular systolic function Decreased CO RAS activation Salt and water retention Increase in vasoconstrictors Further damage Classification Systolic vs diastolic HF
- Systolic = impaired contractility of myocardium
- Diastolic = impaired relaxation of myocardium LHF vs RHF
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