Medicine Notes > University Of Leicester Medicine Notes > Endocrinology Notes

The Thyroid Notes

This is a sample of our (approximately) 6 page long The Thyroid notes, which we sell as part of the Endocrinology Notes collection, a MBChB (hons) (1st) package written at University Of Leicester in 2014 that contains (approximately) 28 pages of notes across 7 different documents.

Learn more about our Endocrinology Notes

The original file is a 'Word (Docx)' whilst this sample is a 'PDF' representation of said file. This means that the formatting here may have errors. The original document you'll receive on purchase should have more polished formatting.

The Thyroid Revision

The following is a plain text extract of the PDF sample above, taken from our Endocrinology Notes. This text version has had its formatting removed so pay attention to its contents alone rather than its presentation. The version you download will have its original formatting intact and so will be much prettier to look at.

The Thyroid Tyrosine Iodination Monoiodotyrosine Iodination Diiodotyrosine Triiodotyrosine T3 - active)

Thyroxine (T4)

Monodeiodination T3 acts via nuclear receptors to
- Increase cell metabolism o Stimulate glucose uptake and metabolism o Stimulate protein breakdown Effects are usually catabolic e.g increased BMR, heat production + O2 consumption
- Increase catecholamine effects o Vital for normal growth and development o Absence causes physical and mental retardation (cretinism) Anatomy
- The thyroid consists of two lobes connected by an isthmus
- Moves on swallowing
- Palpable in normal women
- Embriologically originates from base of tounge and descends to middle of neck
- Blood supply o Superior and inferior thyroid arteries

- One of the most common endocrine conditions with UK prevalence of 1%
- Usually primary from underactive thyroid
- May be secondary to hypothalamic-pituitary disease (reduced TSH drive) Causes
- Autoimmune o Hashimotos thyroiditis
 Lymphocytic and plasma cell infiltration
 Goitre
 V. High antibody titres o Primary atrophic hypothyroidism
 Common
 Diffuse lymphocytic infiltration of thyroid = atrophy (no goiter)
- Acquired o Iodine deficiency o Destructive therapy (radioiodine, surgery) for cancer/hyperthyroidism o Drug induced Clinical features Symptoms Tiredness Weight gain Cold intolerance Depression Poor appetite Goitre Dry skin Constipation

Signs Mental slowless
- ataxia Deep voice Goitre Thin, dry hair Dry skin Overweight/obese Bradycardia

- TFTs o High level serum TSH indicates primary hypothyroidism o Low free T4 confirms hypothyroid state
- FBC o Anaemia due to menorrhagia, or associated pernicious anaemia
- LFT o Increased aspartate transferase levels from muscle/liver
- Lipids o Hypercholesterolaemia
- U+E o Hyponatraemia due to increase in ADH and impaired free water clearance Management
- Replacement therapy with levothyroxine (T4) for life

****************************End Of Sample*****************************

Buy the full version of these notes or essay plans and more in our Endocrinology Notes.