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Cns Malignancy Notes

Medicine Notes > Oncology Notes

This is an extract of our Cns Malignancy document, which we sell as part of our Oncology Notes collection written by the top tier of University Of Leicester students.

The following is a more accessble plain text extract of the PDF sample above, taken from our Oncology Notes. Due to the challenges of extracting text from PDFs, it will have odd formatting:

CNS Malignancy Primary Brain Tumours

Relatively rare - 4500 cases per year in UK

Epidemiology
- 2 peaks of incidence o Childhood o Late middle age (>50 years) Aetiology
- Most sporadic with no proven risk factors
- Li-Fraumeni and Turcot's syndromes = increased risk
- AIDS - increased risk of CNS lymphoma
- Radiation - increased risk of glioma and meningioma (proven on follow up from children who received treatment for ALL) Pathology WHO classification is the most commonly used system for categorizing brain tumours
- Incorporates histological type and grade (histological grades 1-4) Types
- 'Gliomas' o Most common o E.g astrocytoma, oligodendrocytoma - derived from glial cells in brain parenchyma o Glioblastoma multiforme (grade 4) and anaplastic astrocytoma (grade 3) = high grade gliomas. o Vary hugely Clinical features
- Huge variation o Depends on location of the tumour and associated oedema
- Most present due to features of raised intracranial pressure or loss of neurological function
- Common symptoms include Rapid deterioration o Headache (worse in the morning) is indicative of a o Epilepsy high grade lesion o Disturbance of cognition, speech or motor function o Clouding of consciousness o Visual disturbances Location Frontal lobe Parietal lobe Occipital lobe Temporal lobe

Signs Personality change, anosmia, leg weakness, incontinence, apraxia Dysphasia, Gerstman's syndrome (occurs when tumour is in dominant parietal lobe - left/right disorientation) Homonymous hemianopia Dysphasia, memory loss

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