This is an extract of our Gastrointestinal Problems In Children document, which we sell as part of our Paediatrics Notes collection written by the top tier of University Of Leicester students.
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Gastrointestinal Problems in Children Nutrition in childhood-
Milk provides all the nutrients an infant needs for first 6 months of life Newborn infants require 150ml/kg/day of fluid Milk contains o Carbohydrate o Fat o Protein (casein, lactalbumin and lactoferrin) o Calcium First colostrum is produced from breast - thin yellow milk, high in immunoglobulins Breastmilk is deficient in vitamin K therefore all newborns offered Vit K at birth to prevent haemolytic disease of the newborn
Weaning starts around 6 months Should not have cow's milk until 1 year old Start finger feeding at 7-9 months At 9 months - eating mashed up adult food
ConstipationIn normal children the frequency of bowel movements ranges from
>2/day to none for several days Infrequent bowel movements are common in exclusively breastfed babies
Constipation = passage of a hard, infrequent stools with painful defaecation Soiling = faecal staining of the underwear and results from leakage of liquid stool around impacted faeces when a child is constipated. Often mistaken for diarrhea Encoparesis = voluntary passage of a formed stool in inappropriate places (including underwear) by a child who is mature enough to be continent. Indicative of severe behavioral problems.
Causes of constipation - an overview Acute causes Fluid depletion Caused by fever or hot weather May require laxatives Bowel obstruction Rare and due to congenital gut malformations Usually presents as an acute abdomen May present as constipation with vomiting and abdominal pain
Chronic causes Functional constipation Common, even more so in diabled children Often stems from withholding from painful defeacation May cause megacolon Management includes laxative, bowel training and diet Hirschprungs Disease Onset in newborn period or infancy Failure to thrive and abdo. Distension Diagnosis by rectal biopsy
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