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Asthma Notes

This is a sample of our (approximately) 4 page long Asthma notes, which we sell as part of the Respiratory Notes collection, a MBChB (hons) (1st) package written at University Of Leicester in 2014 that contains (approximately) 35 pages of notes across 13 different documents.

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Asthma Revision

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Asthma An inflammatory condition causing reversible airway obstruction Epidemiology
- 2000 deaths a year in UK
- Prevalence 10-15%
- Classified as o Extrinsic (childhood, associated with atopy, remits in teens) o Intrinsic (develops later in life, doesn't respond to rx well) o Occupational (relates to workplace allergen) Aetiology
- Genetic predisposition o Runs in families with atopy (eczema, hayfever, asthma, conjunctivitis)
- Environmental factors o Drugs (aspirin, B blockers) o Allergens (dust, pollen, animal hair) o Occupational (wood, dust, dye) o Environmental (cold air, exercise, emotion) Pathophysiology 3 factors contribute to airway narrowing 1) Bronchial muscle contraction + hypertrophy 2) Mucosal inflammation caused by mast cells + basophil degranulation, resulting in release of inflammatory cytokines 3) Increased mucus production Clinical features Symptoms (all INTERMITTENT) Dyspnoea Wheeze Nocturnal cough Sputum Diurnal variation of peak flow +
symptoms (worse in morning) Decreased exercise tolerance

Signs Tachpnoea Audible wheeze Hyperinflated chest Hyperresonant percussion note Decreased air entry Widespread, polyphonic wheeze

Assessing the severity of an asthma attack
- Moderate o PEFR 110bpm o Resp rate > 25 o Inability to complete sentences o Wheezy chest o Alert/mild confusion o Very low pO2, normal pCO2, normal pH
- Life threatening

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