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Intro To Abnormal Psych Notes

Psychology Notes > Intro to Social and Developmental Psych (1st year) Notes

This is an extract of our Intro To Abnormal Psych document, which we sell as part of our Intro to Social and Developmental Psych (1st year) Notes collection written by the top tier of Durham University students.

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Abnormal Psych
Deviance = behaviours/ thoughts/ emotions deviate from normal
Distress = behaviours/ thoughts/ emotions cause distress
Dysfunction = interference with daily functioning (work/social)
Danger = behaviour posing threat
Early treatments
 Abnormality caused by evil/magic  disease: physical
 Medical Model: conceptualisation of psych abnormalities as biological disease with symptoms/ causes/ cures

Renaissance 19th Century

Early 20th century:
2 perspectives

Hospitals  asylums
Overflowing  virtually prisons: filthy and cruel
Pinel: illness should be cared for
Dorothea Dix: demanded better treatments
BUT failed  low funds, low recovery, prejudice
Somatogenic = abnormalities  physical causes
 lobotomies, eugenic sterilizing
Psychogenic = psych causes
Breur: hypnotism
Freud: unconscious roots

Treatment
Psychotropic medications
Antipsychotics, antidepressants, antianxiety
Deinstitutionalisation 1955: 600,000 2010: <40,000 ST
Psychotherapy 1/6 USA
Prevention
Correcting SES
+ve Psych
Enhance +ve feelings eg optimism
Insurance
Managed care programs
Gene-Environment Interaction
Having 5-HTT gene not enough to predict depression
Gene and maltreatment  depression
Diathesis-stress model: Zubin & Spring
Multi-cause SZ
Stress needed to trigger disposition
 focus on prevention (supportive family, high self-esteem)
HPA axis
Early trauma  High HPA activity  SZ, depression, PTSD Abnormal Psych
Classification
N USA old classification:
Psychosis = distortion of perception and thoughts that lose grasp of reality
Neurosis = still in touch with reality  anxiety 1952: DSM 3 key elements of disorders:
 Symptoms that involve disturbances in behaviour/ emotions
 Symptoms that associate with significant distress/ impairment
 Symptoms that stem for internal dysfunction - biol/ psych

Main DSM-V categories of mental disorders = 22 - >500 disorders

1. Neurodevelopmental disorders

2. Schizophrenic spectrum and other psychotic disorders

3. Bipolar and related disorders

4. Depressive disorders

5. Anxiety disorders

6. Obsessive-compulsive and related disorders

7. Trauma- and stressor-related disorders

8. Dissociative disorders

9. Somatic symptom and related disorders

10. Feeding and eating disorders

11. Elimination disorders (eg bed-wetting)

12. Sleep-wake disorders (eg insomnia)

13. Sexual dysfunction (eg erectile disorder)

14. Gender dysphoria

15. Disruptive, impulse control, and conduction disorders (eg antisocial behaviour)

16. Substance-related and addictive behaviours

17. Neurocognitive disorders (eg conditions caused by Alzheimer's disease)

18. Personality disorders

19. Paraphilic disorders (eg inappropriate sexual activity causing stress or harm)

20. Other mental disorders (residual category)

21. Medication-induced movement disorders and other adverse effects of medication

22. Other conditions that may be in the focus of clinical attention (eg related to abuse)
Axis I
Axis II
Axis III

Displays 1 or more primary disorders
Mental retardation/personality disorders (difficult to treat)
General medical condition

Axis IV
Axis V

Psychosocial, environmental problems
Global assessment of functioning (1-100)

DSM-V changes - adding:
 Mixed anxiety/ depression
 Substance use and addictive vs non-sunstance
 Binge eating Abnormal Psych


OCD separate to anxiety
Autism
Culturally relative disorders eg ghost sickness in Native America

DSM reliability  early = 54%
 how much do different psych agree?
Construct validity = accuracy  good predictor of future?
Comorbidity = 45% suffer from more than 1 disorder eg depressed patients 73% also GAD
Main ICD-10 categories of mental disorders (WHO, 2004)

1 Organic,
including Cognitive impairment due to brain disease/injury, eg symptomatic,
mental Alzheimer's, delirium and organic amnesia disorders 2
Substance abuse
Including alcohol, illegal drugs and prescription medicine 3
SZ, schizotypal and delusional Disorders and emotions that are inappropriate or blunted disorders 4
Mood (affective) disorders
Individuals may be extremely depressed, abnormally elated, or may alternate between these 2 extremes 5
Neurotic, stress-related and Excessive anxiety, extreme and persistent reactions to somatoform disorders stress, and alterations in consciousness and identity due to emotional problems, and physical symptoms that have no medical basis 6
Behavioural syndromes assoc Eating/sleep/sexual disorders with physiological disturbances and physical factors 7
Disorders of adult personality Long-standing patterns of maladaptive behaviour inc and behaviour immature and inappropriate stress coping methods or solving problems 8
Mental retardation
Impairment of skills which contribute to overall intelligence level 9
Disorders of psych Disorders with onset in childhood resulting in impairment development or delay of language, visual-spatial and motor skills 1
Behavioural and emotional Hyperkinetic disorders characterized by an early onset,
0 disorders with onset usually in lack of persistence in activities, and disorganized, illchildhood and adolescence regulated and excessive activity 1
Unspecified mental disorder
Any disorder which is none of the above 1
Labelling
Self-fulfilling prophecy
Stigma  70% do not seek treatment
Prevalence = number active cases in a population at a given time eg point, 1 year, lifetime
Incidence = number new cases over a given time (typically 1 year) Abnormal Psych
Psychodynamic = inner conflict
 Free association
 Dream analysis
 Resistance analysis - clients react to therapist as they did to an earlier person
 Counter-resistance - therapist may also have misplaced feelings to client
Behavioural therapy = problem focused, not traumatic event
 Exposure Therapy - systematic desensitisation/ flooding
 Aversion therapy - punishment: noxious drugs
 Modelling - imitating therapist
 Reinforcement - response shaping
 Token economies
Cognitive = thoughts
Rational Emotive Behavioural Therapy: Ellis
 Restructure maladaptive thoughts
 Disputes false beliefs
 Increase self-worth
Beck's Cognitive Therapy
 Identify dysfunctional beliefs
 ignore +ve events, overgeneralization, magnification

Humanistic therapy = self-deficit - awareness focused
Client-centered: Rogers
 Help accept and be themselves
 Need a genuine, accepting, empathetic therapist

ANXIETY F>M 2:1
DSM:


Ongoing 6mnths
Difficulty controlling worry 3 of: restless, fatigue, irritable, tense, insomnia

Psychodynamic
Humanistic
Cognitive
Biological

Neurotic: prevented from expressing id impulses
Moral: punished for expressing id impulses
Those who don't receive unconditional +ve regards from others = highly selfcritical
Dysfunctional ways of thinking
Maladaptive beliefs  stress  danger  overreact = FEAR
BZs reduce anxiety

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