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Intro To Intelligence Notes

Psychology Notes > Intro to Social and Developmental Psych (1st year) Notes

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Intelligence
= hypothetical  not directly observable
STERNBERG
People asked to list behavioural charac of general/academic/everyday/un intelligence
People asked to rate how well each behaviour reflected each intelligence category
Lay persons' dimensions of intelligence
Problem solving ability
Verbal ability
Social competence

Experts' dimensions of intelligence
Problem solving ability
Verbal ability
Practical intelligence

W culture = emphasises speed mental processing and gather info quickly
E culture = good cognitive skills and memory, historical/spiritual intelligence

Ages: Siegler & Richards 6m/o

2y/o

10y/o

Adults

Recognise and aware
Motor coordination
Some verbalising
Verbal and motor
Able to learn
Aware and curious
Verbal
Learning and reasoning
Creative
Problem solving
Problem solving
Verbal
Reasoning
Creative

Av intelligent
V intelligent

Able to deal with novelty
Every day and verbal competence
Young adults say: able to deal with novelty
Middle aged say: every day and verbal competence

Sternberg: across academia
Arts
Business
Philosophy

Physics

Able to use knowledge
Weigh up and see analogies
Logical and problem solving
See others' arguments
Logical
Follow complex ideas
Find errors and generate arguments
Maths
Grasp laws of nature quickly Intelligence
GALTON = reaction tests
Founded Differential Psych: inter-indiv diff and Experimental Psych
Proposed intelligence has core general abilities with specific aptitudes
First to show mental and physical attributes correlate

BINET = Binet-Simon scale 30 tasks:

1. Follow light with eye

2. Name body parts

3. Count coins

4. Name objects

5. Recall digits

6. Word meanings

7. Fill in missing words
Designed to measure aptitude BEFORE education and predict future school achievement

STERN = IQ
IQ = Mental age x 100
Actual age
Predictive validity - of future achievement

YERKES = Army - time restrictions
Alpha = literates  8 subtests
Follow oral directions
Solve maths prob
Show practical judgement
Synonyms/antonyms
Rearrange sentences
Number patterns
See analogies
Show general knowledge

Beta = illiterates  7 subtests
Maze
Cube analysis
Read X-O series
Digit symbols
Number symbols
Complete picture
Rearrange graphics

LOGIC OF INTELLIGENCE TESTS
Response correlates consequential behaviour - influenced by intelligence (jobs)
Conseq behav correlates hypothetical property (intelligence) Intelligence
SPEARMAN = 2 factor intelligence
S = specific abilities eg spatial/vocab/maths
G = general abilities  +ve correlations between Sve correlations between S

WESCHLER TEST
Weschler-Bellevue = huge range S that correlate  G
WAIS = adults
WISC = children
WAIS
Verbal: C. DAVIS
Comprehension
Digit Span
Arithmetic
Vocab
Info
Similarities

Performance: CO-DAB
Picture Completion
Object Assembly
Digit Symbol
Picture Arranging
Block Design

Intercorrelations found between ^ to  G
Deviation IQ =

Actual test score x 100
Expected score for age

IQ based on deviation from average

RAVEN'S PROGRESSIVE MATRICES  measuring G
60 items  5 item sets
Shown matrix of patterns  1 pattern is missing ie non-verbal reasoning
Can Ps form perceptual relations?

THURNSTONE
'Clusters of correlations' = primary mental abilities
G results from 7 primary abilities: SNARP V.F.

1. Space

2. Number

3. Associative memory

4. Reasoning

5. Perceptual speed

6. Verbal comprehension

7. Word fluency

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