This is an extract of our Intro To Social Psych document, which we sell as part of our Intro to Social and Developmental Psych (1st year) Notes collection written by the top tier of Durham University students.
The following is a more accessble plain text extract of the PDF sample above, taken from our Intro to Social and Developmental Psych (1st year) Notes. Due to the challenges of extracting text from PDFs, it will have odd formatting:
= scientific study of the reciprocal influence of the individual and context
Standard Social Model = born blank slates
Evolution due to:
Random Variation - recombinant gametes/mutation/sexual reproduction
Systematic Selection - natural/sexual
Proximate = why right now?
Ultimate = why at all?
Phylogenetic = evolutionary history
Ontogenetic = individual development
Gender roles = appropriate behaviour for M/F
Gender identity = perception of oneself as M/F
Sex = biological X/Y
Gender = social ie cultural d score = M av - F av
0.2 = small effect
0.5 = medium effect
0.8 = large effect
Aggression d = 0.4 medium
Emotional decoding d = -1.02 large
How to measure M/F = Bem Sex Pole Inventory
Mischel Learning Theory: M and F rewarded for difference behaviours Social Psych
Perry and Bussey: imitation of sex-typical behaviour
Media: TV characters M:F 5:1 and gender stereotyped
Cultural/Social Role Theory: Eagly
Do stereotypes cause behaviour?
Spencer, Steele & Quinn - F do worse on maths test when asked gender
Campbell - 3m/o F look more to other F than 3m/o M-M
Cross - sex diff in impulsivity falling as society equalises
Children shown sex diff before they develop stereotypes
Stereotypes occur in pre-schoolers
Actual stereotypes are LOWER than perceived stereotypes
Perhaps division of labour is caused by sex diff:
M hunt/build/fish etc
F care/laundry etc
Biosocial reformulation: Wood & Eagly
Inter: opposite sex prefers some traits
Intra: some traits increase competitor vs own sex
Parental Investment (Trivers): investment into offspring increases survival
Differences in PI: M
Buy the full version of these notes or essay plans and more in our Intro to Social and Developmental Psych (1st year) Notes.