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JW REVISION NOTES Adolescence and the Family
Youniss & Smollar Adolescent relationships with mothers, fathers and friends Apter Altered Loves Apter The Myth of Maturity Erikson Childhood and Society Erikson Identity, Youth and Crisis Mead Coming of Age in Samoa Bainbridge Teenagers Schachter, S., Singer, J. E. (1962) Cognitive, social, and physiological determinants of emotional state" Blos On Adolescence Hollenstein et al Sympathetic and parasympathetic responses to social stress across adolescence Psychodevelopmental Approach Youniss & Smollar Adolescent relationships with mothers, fathers and friends YJY believes that "relationships in adolescence are fundamental to self-definition, and their development is synonymous with the individual's development". He sees the change in adolescence as essentially the child-adult transition. This is coinciding with:
-self-awareness of the parent-self bond
- shift of reliance from parents to friends. In particular emphasizing that adolescent experience less autonomy than a change in relations JY contrasts against a functionalist account of adolescence saying that adolescence is not simply an adaptation to society and social constructionism does not account for people's needs for relationships. In this way he has a psychodevelopmental approach. Apter Altered Loves This book, as the title suggests, marks the changing relationships between parent-child, which in late modernity is particularly driven by individualization and by the preservation of relationships. "the strong tie to parents which most girls and many boys carry with them throughout adolescence must be something other than a relic, a residual immaturity" "It is in mid-adolescence, when the girl I caught up in her task of correcting the mother's presumption of the girl as child that the split between friend and parent is greatest" Apter describes the change in relationship between mother and daughter "though her daughter continues to use her as a mirror or a bouncing board, the mother herself has lost her daughter as a simple and direct reflector of the mother's love." Apter The Myth of Maturity Erikson Childhood and Society EE uses this book to bridge the influences upon childhood of biology and society through psychoanalysis. He agrees with Margaret Mead that different societies influence childhood and in particular discusses Ruth Benedict's work ('continuities and discontinuities in cultural conditioning' psychiatry, 1:161-7 (1938) American Indians expect children to perform responsible tasks, thus making childhood activity and adult activity a continuum. EE describes how 'animals and birds were brought to
[the child's] awareness in a graded series beginning wtih those most easily taken, and as he brought in his first of each species his family duly made a feast of it, accepting his contribution as gravekly as the buffalo his father brought. when he finally killed a buffalo,. it was only the final step of his childhood conditioning, not a new adult role with which his childhood experience had been at variance.' However, his psychoanalytic background sees the psychological influence of puberty as a contibutory factor in the development of adolescence. This distinctly Chodorow idea has been refined: EE acknowledges that puberty may be interpreted culturally. He says 'with the advent of puberty, childhood proper comes to an end'. EE sees adolescent identity formation as inevitable. 'in puberty and adolescence all samenesses and continuities relied on earlier are more or less questioned again, because of a rapidity of body growth which equals that of early childhood and beacause of the new addition of genital maturity.' He considers sex to be a key question of adolescent identity search. 'to a considerable extent adolescent love is an attempt to arrive at a definition of one's identty by projecting one's diffused egoimage on another'.
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