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1. Blood The blood consists of





Fluid (plasma/serum) Ions Proteins
- Albumin
- Globulin
- Hormones
- Mediators
- Clotting factors
- Nutrients Lipids Carbohydrate Gas Cells

2. Erythrocytes Red blood cells are produced in the bone marrow from the CFU-E line of cells, which in turn are produced from CFU-GEMM multipotent cells.

2.1

Reticulocytes

Reticulocytes are immature, non-nucletated erythrocytes prematurely released to the blood from bone marrow in regenerative anaemia. When stained with new methylene blue (NMB) stain RNA-protein complexes can be seen in reticulocytes. They can also be detected with Wright stain as polychromatophils.

An absolute reticulocyte count can be obtained manually or automatically in some haematological analysers.

The reticulocyte production index corrects the reticulocyte count for PCV and indicates if the level of regeneration is appropriate. The corrected reticulocyte percentage (CRP) is calculated by: CRP = % reticulocytes x (PCV of the sample / normal PCV) The reticulocyte production index (RPI) is calculated by: RPI = CRP/maturation index (MI) The maturation index is the maturation time for reticulocytes in the blood. The following values are for dogs: PCV

0.45

0.35

0.25

0.15

Maturation index (days) 1

1.5 2

2.5

If RPI is >3, regeneration is considered very good. If RPI is between 1-3, regeneration is good. If RPI is Within dog breeds there is also variation. Poodles often show macrocytosis, whilst Akitas have unusually small erythrocytes and a high potassium content. Greyhounds have high PCVs (0.55-0.6L/L). Bernese Mountain Dogs have high MCHC (21.21-22.17nmol/L). Cats have smaller erythrocytes that display anisocytosis (variation in size) and have scarce central pallor due to their less concave shape.

Erythrocytes of horses demonstrate rouleaux formation.

Ruminant erythrocytes demonstrate anisocytosis and crenation.

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