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1. Blood The blood consists of???Fluid (plasma/serum) Ions Proteins
- Clotting factors
- Nutrients Lipids Carbohydrate Gas Cells
2. Erythrocytes Red blood cells are produced in the bone marrow from the CFU-E line of cells, which in turn are produced from CFU-GEMM multipotent cells.
Reticulocytes are immature, non-nucletated erythrocytes prematurely released to the blood from bone marrow in regenerative anaemia. When stained with new methylene blue (NMB) stain RNA-protein complexes can be seen in reticulocytes. They can also be detected with Wright stain as polychromatophils.
An absolute reticulocyte count can be obtained manually or automatically in some haematological analysers.
The reticulocyte production index corrects the reticulocyte count for PCV and indicates if the level of regeneration is appropriate. The corrected reticulocyte percentage (CRP) is calculated by: CRP = % reticulocytes x (PCV of the sample / normal PCV) The reticulocyte production index (RPI) is calculated by: RPI = CRP/maturation index (MI) The maturation index is the maturation time for reticulocytes in the blood. The following values are for dogs: PCV
Maturation index (days) 1
2.5 If RPI is >3, regeneration is considered very good. If RPI is between 1-3, regeneration is good. If RPI is <1, regeneration is inadequate. So for example, a dog with a PCV of 0.15L/L and a reticulocyte count of 12%: CRP = 12 x (0.15/0.45) = 4 RPI = 4/2.5 = 1.6 There is variation between species in reticulocyte response. Dogs have a low number of reticulocytes (<1%) but a potentially strong reticulocyte response in regenerative anaemia. Cats have a low number of reticulocytes (0.2-1.6%) that may be aggregated or punctated. They also have a potentially strong reticulocyte response in regenerative anaemia. Cattle and horses have virtually no reticulocytes present in normal blood, and do not have a strong reticulocyte response in regenerative anaemia.
2.2 Species variation in blood morphology
Dogs have larger erythrocytes that are uniform in size with a central pallor.
Within dog breeds there is also variation. Poodles often show macrocytosis, whilst Akitas have unusually small erythrocytes and a high potassium content. Greyhounds have high PCVs (0.55-0.6L/L). Bernese Mountain Dogs have high MCHC (21.21-22.17nmol/L). Cats have smaller erythrocytes that display anisocytosis (variation in size) and have scarce central pallor due to their less concave shape.
Erythrocytes of horses demonstrate rouleaux formation.
Ruminant erythrocytes demonstrate anisocytosis and crenation.
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