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Antibiotics Summary Table Notes

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Structure

Name/Group

Target and mechanisms

Common routes of resistance.

Bacteriocidal/
Bacteriostatic

Groups of bacteria effected and spectrum of activity

β-lactam Penicillin

Target: Cell wall

B-lactamase activity

Bacteriocidal

Gram positive.

Bacteriocidal

Resistant to Blactamases produced by Staphylococcus.

β-lactam cephalosporin

Target: Penicillin binding proteins (PBPs) interfere with production of peptidoglycan and cell wall synthesis.

Target: Cell wall

Mechanism: Penicillin binding proteins (PBPs) interfere with production of peptidoglycan and cell wall

Modification of PBP - occurs in Staphylococcus aureus. Outer membrane most gram negative bacteria inherently impermeable to these drugs. B-lactamase activity. Modification of PBP - occurs in Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococci. Outer membrane most gram-ve

Grouped 1-3, with decreasing activity against gram positive and increased activity against gram

Polymyxin-B

synthesis.

bacteria inherently impermeable to these drugs.

Target: Cell membrane

Gram positive bacteria intrinsically resistant as do not have LPS.

Mechanism: target LPS in outer membranes

negative.

Bacteriocidal

Gram negative. Use requires injection.

LPS modification. Sulphonamide

A number of structures for this groups this is the simplest.

Target: DNA synthesis Mechanism: Competitive blocking of paraamenobenzoic acid (PABA) incorporation to folic acid. Inhibit Dihydrofolate synthase (DHF).

Altered by synthetic pathway employing sulphonamide resistant enzyme.

Bacteriostatic

No longer used except in conjunction with trimethoprim.

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