(Case before US Supreme court): D used to segregate its black employees, only allowing them to work in the Labour Dept (lowest paying dept). To try and comply with new Civil Rights Act it said that to work outside the labour dept it was necessary to pass an IQ test and have a high school diploma. This effectively stopped black workers from getting jobs outside the labour dept. Supreme Court held that this practice was unlawful and discriminatory. The Court found that under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, if such tests disparately impact ethnic minority groups, businesses must demonstrate that such tests are "reasonably related" to the job for which the test is required. The tests must be a ‘reasonable measure of job performance’, which these tests were not.
Chief Justice Burger: The aim of the act was the removal of arbitrary or artificial barriers to work.