This is an extract of our Diversity document, which we sell as part of our Employment Relations Notes collection written by the top tier of Oxford University students.
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Diversity?Difference between equal opportunities and diversity management policies: the former focuses on treating everyone in the same way, while the latter emphasizes that individual differences should be recognized and valued as a source of competitive advantage (Foster and Harris, 2005) EO built around legislation (Equality Act 2010), diversity management individual to the firm. One is a base for the other?
? Wajcman: less than 40% of the women of the flagship companies at Opportunity 2000 felt they had equal opportunities to men, 70% of men thought opps were equal.
? Major problem is that women continue to have primary, if not exclusive, responsibility for children (Wilson) and these domestic labour responsibilities massively affect their ability to participate in the labour market (Hochschild).
? Hakim: men and women still accept the modern sexual division of labour, and women actually have more choice than men in terms of their working life and its balance with homemaking.
? However Dex et al: clear association between part time employment and women's caring responsibilities, suggests that having a family significantly impacts on women's working lives in a way that it does not for men.
? Societal norms and the belief that women are associated with 'family' while men with 'work' means that 'challenging women' who seek to challenge gender hierarchy within firms (and have the potential to do so) are not viewed as leaders but as 'deviants', as 'within male cultures they are ridiculed for their transforming capacities'.
? Managerial competence is constituted around masculine images of a workaholic, aggressiveness and hard managerialism ? dislikable traits for a woman to adopt.
? Gendering of processes such as visibility, involvement in networks and acceptability which are crucial to career success.
? ? hinders women's ability to progress up the career ladder, especially when women are assumed to be less committed than their male counterparts even when they have no domestic responsibilities (Halford et al). Problem with perception not fact. Earn 77% of what men earn. Many other forms of discrimination and prejudice besides gender, such as disability, religion, race and sexual orientation.
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