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History of Land Law Writ of right patent: Assize of Windsor and Magna Carta Petty assizes: 1) Novel disseisin 2) Mort d'ancestor Writs of entry: Replevin: Lords enforcing rights to services Incidents of Tenure Aids Fines on alienation Relief and primer seisin Escheat Customary dues Wardship and marriage
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6)
1) Mortmain 2) Method of conveyance - substitution and subinfeudation Solutions: 1) Statute de Viris Religiosis (1279) 2) Quia Emptores Fee Simple Protection of widows 1) Dower Protection of younger sons and daughters 1) Entail 2) Maritagium Entail
1) Statute de Donis - protects intentions of donors 2) Attempts to bar entails:
? Warranty Conveyance
? Right of re-entry
? Common recovery
? Final concord 3) Perpetual settlements not possible ___________________________________________________________________________________________
1 Pre-Conquest: Anglo Saxon The Conquest Conquest made little change at peasant level - Normans came to exploit the peasantry. However, at upper levels of society (regional kings and barons) the Conquest makes a break. They were all displaced and replaced by Lords. Only a few Anglo-Saxon people remained significant land holders and William the Conqueror rewarded people with land, not money. Bookland Bookland provided for a grant of land from the king in perpetuity to one who would be liable for military service, and to forfeiture of the land for failure to perform that service. The book was a royal charter recording the grant, which can be contrasted with folk land, held on customary terms. What was the influence of bookland on the higher class after the invasion? Merges in Norman feudal tenure and the term disappears. The importance of bookland:
(1) Bookland was subjected to and protected by royal authority; so if (as some argue) in decades immediately after Conquest there was significant royal influence in relation to land holding, that may have its roots in the pre-conquest period. The Norman conquerors happy not to treat their new acquisition as a clean slate. The proprietary of royal involvement in land holding was carried across into the Anglo-Norman period. (2) Bookland appears to approach 'property' even in a strict legal sense. Given the fulfilment of limited and specific requirements (i.e. military service) the holding of bookland was clear. It could be alienated and inherited. And could be left by will. Look like lawyer's property ownership of land. ___________________________________________________________________________________________ Post Conquest: 1066 - 1290 Political DevelopmentsLast Anglo-Saxon Wessex king was Edward the Confessor who died childless in 1066. Was succeeded by brother in law, Harold Godwinson. Defeated in October 1066 by William Duke of Normandy.William I (the Conqueror), reigned from 1066 until 1087. Claimed throne by rightful grant. Upon his death he was succeeded by his son William II ('Rufus'), who died in 1100.William II was succeeded by his younger brother Henry I, who died in 1135. Henry I wished to be succeeded by his daughter Matilda, widow of the Emperor Henry V. He failed to grant her lands or castles or crown her.The Anarchy - Within weeks of Henry I's death the throne had been seized by Matilda's cousin, Stephen, son of Henry I's sister Adela. Stephen's kingship was shortly confirmed by the pope, but '[f]rom then on it was steadily down hill' (+ David Carpenter, The Struggle for Mastery, Britain 1066-1284), and there followed a period of disorder ('the anarchy') as Stephen and Matilda and their respective supporters struggled for the throne. Intermittent civil war. War ended in stalemate.Under the Treaty of Winchester 1153, Henry II, Matilda's son, came to the throne upon Stephen's death in
1154. Treaty provided Stephen retain the throne for life and then be succeeded.Henry II came to the throne in 1154 against a background of anarchy. The Great Statute 1290.
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