This is a sample of our (approximately) 4 page long Hoarseness notes, which we sell as part of the ENT Notes collection, a MBChB (hons) (1st) package written at University Of Leicester in 2014 that contains (approximately) 36 pages of notes across 16 different documents.
The original file is a 'Word (Docx)' whilst this sample is a 'PDF' representation of said file. This means that the formatting here may have errors. The original document you'll receive on purchase should have more polished formatting.
The following is a plain text extract of the PDF sample above, taken from our ENT Notes. This text version has had its formatting removed so pay attention to its contents alone rather than its presentation. The version you download will have its original formatting intact and so will be much prettier to look at.
Hoarseness What is a normal voice?
One that is o Audible in a wide range of acoustic settings o Appropriate for gender and age o Capable of fulfilling its linguistic and paralinguistic functions o Not easily fatigued o Not associated with phonatory discomfort/pain
Vocal cords are attached anteriorly to the thyroid cartilage and posteriorly to the arytenoid cartilages Intrinsic laryngeal muscles abduct cords for respiration and adduct the cords for lower airway protection, cough and phonation Vocal cords = mucosal folds o Have a superficial layer of epithelium separated from the underlying ligament and muscle by 'reinke's space'
Allows epithelial layer to slide and osscilate passively over the ligament
Larynx is divided into three regions
Supraglottis Glottis Subglottis
Voice into o o o o
problems can be classified Structural/neoplastic Inflammatory Neuromuscular Muscle tension imbalance
Patients may have evidence of >1 E.g a vocal cord polyp (structural) may arise as a result of a primary muscle tension from voice abuse during a viral URTI (inflammation)
As a laryngeal visualization is often necessary, most patients need referring Patients with persistent hoarseness/voice change for > 3 weeks (especially if a smoker, heavy drinker + >40 years) need urgent CXR to exclude RLN palsy from lung cancer + referral to ENT surgeons
History o Specific voice problem e.g abnormal quality, pitch etc o Onset, duration o Constant/intermittent o Relieving/exacerbating factors o Voice requirement e.g fine precision + control/voice projection/continuous use o Past medical history o Drug history - reduced laryngeal secretions + mucosal drying =
anticholinergics, diuretics. Irritant = bronchial inhalers
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