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Exclusivity Rule & Public/Private Divide
Getting Outside of JR - C seeks to proceed outside CPR 54 & s31 1981 Act Procedural Exclusivity
Prior to Order 53, range of remedies mixed + uncertainty about their scope (i.e. certiorari & declaration). Reform
? Order 53 (some provisions incorporated into s31 Supreme Court Act 1981)
JR now governed by CPR 8, as modified by Pt 54 (all JR apps lodged after Oct 2000) + s31 + Practice Directions
S31(2) - decl. & injunction can be granted if court considers that, having regard to nature of the matter/persons or bodies against whom remedy may be granted by prerogative orders, and all circs, that it would be just & convenient to make it or grant an injunction
Read apps for JR in light of O'Reilly v Mackman - limited circs in which remedies could be brought outside of s31
= Lord Diplock: where PL rights are at stake, C can only proceed by way of JR and can't originate action under gen. civil law procedure b/c that would be avoiding safeguards afforded to PAs, including "sufficient interest", timely submission & permission for JR.
= NB: prior to reforms prerogative orders were subject to a number of limitations: no right of discovery, damages couldn't be claimed in conjunction w/one of the orders, cross examinations rare. Order 53 removed these, providing safegyards for PBs, including time limit short enough not to keep it in suspense as to validity of its own actions. Rationale for Seeking to Proceed outside S31 a) Avoid short time limit b) Investigate factual issues/undertake cross examination Exceptions to O'Reilly 1) Where public law issues are a condition to establishing C's private law rights, action must be brought by way of JR under s31 b/c C has no private law rights to found the action outside JR o Cocks v Thanet DC  - P claimed decl. + damages alleging breach by council of duties to inquire if C might be homeless & whether he might be entitled to accommodation. Held these were public law issues, determination of which was a cond. precedent for C's private law rights, so had to be under JR.
= Difficulty post O'Reilly to decide if particular interest was a private right + did its presence mean O'Reilly didn't apply full stop or was it merely a factor capable of leading to a discretionary exception to it 2) D can raise public law issues as a defence in civil law proceedings w/out bringing separate action for JR o Wandsworth LBC v Winder  -LA raised P's flat rent, he refused & paid only what he thought reasonable, council sued for arrears & possession, P argued in defence it acted UV in increasing rent. Council argued legality could only be tested under s31. Held for P. Cocks distinguished b/w P there didn't have private law rights whereas W had a contract + wasn't the one to initiate proceedings so didn't get to choose the course of action. 3) If case turns exclusively on public law right, the only remedy is JR under s31, but if it involves assertion of private law rights, by way of claim or defence, the fact that its existence might accidentally involve examination of public law issues doesn't prevent C from bringing ordinary action outside s31. o Roy v Kensington & Chelsea FPC  - P, doc, paid certain sums under NHS regs, provided that devotes substantial amount of time to treating NHS patients. FPC decided he wasn't complying & reduced his allowance. He claimed breach of contract & was allowed to proceed outside s31. Lord Lowry: distinguish: a) Broad approach - O'Reilly doesn't apply in cases involving private law rights in circs where those actions involve a challenge to public law act or decision, requiring C to proceed by way of JR only where no private law rights are at stake (preferred!) b) Narrow approach - rule applies to all proceedings in which public law acts/decisions are challenged, subject to some exceptions where private law rights are involved o Boddington v British Transport Police  - D in crim proceedings can challenge a byelaw or decision made thereunder where prosecution is based on its validity, unless there's clear Parl. intent to the contrary. Didn't have to challenge by way of JR b/c it would be contrary to rule of law to convict a person who couldn't rely on defence. Procedural exclusivity insisted on only where the sole subject of action was to challenge a public law act or decision - won't apply where: a) C in a civ. law case seeks to defend himself by questioning validity of public law decision or uses it as a claim b) In a crim. law case where D's liberty is at stake 4) O'Reilly exclusivity is presumptive, not conclusive - in determining whether case could be brought outside s31
& CPR 54 ask if proceedings constitute "abuse of process" of court. C can proceed outside s31 if has private law rights &, if doesn't, can also do so where it's not abuse of process
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