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Enforcement And Extraterritoriality Notes

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A more recent version of these Enforcement And Extraterritoriality notes – written by Oxford students – is available here.

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Competition Law Reading Session 4: (Enforcement and Extraterritoriality) See notes from lectures 6 & 7 Ezrachi Case book: Chapters 7 & 8- Enforcement

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Articles 81 and 82EC have direct horizontal effect and can be applied in NCs and national competition authorities.

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Regulation 1/2003 (on enforcement) says that agreements/CP/decisions of trade associations that come within the meaning of article 81 and infringe 81(1), shall be prohibited by NCs & comp. authorities of MSs, unless they satisfy 81(3), in which case they shall not be prohibited. Also abuses of dom position prohibited by art. 81 will also be prohibited by NCs etc. (article 1, reg 1/2003)

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It's possible to sue for damages in competition law cases (Courage v Crehan), and might also be used for injunctive relief. In the absence of C rules, it's for each MS to decide how compensation is worked out- see C-295/04 Manfredi (e.g. should it include punitive damages) but under C law it must include interest (some say this brings Europe closer to having the treble damages system that the US has, because there is no award for interest there).

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Euro defence: where a party gets out of having to pay money under a contract because he claims that it's in breach of art. 81/82. Treated sceptically by the courts which feared it being used as a way to escape a bad bargain.

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Burden is on party alleging infringement, but defencdant has burden when claiming exemption under 81(3). (art.2, reg 1/2003).

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NB C law is silent on the 'passing on' defence (where D says that P hasn't actually suffered damage because he just passed on the extra cost to him to his own customers in turn). Hasn't banned it unlike US.

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When NCs consider a matter falling within scope of 81/82 and the commission has already taken a decision on the matter then NCs cant take a decision contradicting the one of the decision. Article 10 EC creates a duty of loyal cooperation between MSs and Commission. This is further detailed in 1/2003.Art. 3 reg 1/2003 details relationship between national and EC competition law, art. 15 explains cooperation between NCs and Commission, while art. 16 ensures a uniform application of C competition law.

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The regulation has not increased the amount of private enforcement of competition law. See notes from lectures on private enforcement.

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The reg does increase Commission's powers of investigation. Art. 20 details these, and arts 23 and 24 detail fines for failure to allow the inspection. Under art 21 the commission, with sanction from the NC, can enter and search private property. Art. 18 allows the commission to request documents and impose penalities where incorrect/misleading info is given. See lecture notes for stuff on legal privilege (NB legal privilege doesn't apply to communications from in-house counsel).

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Commission can interview people who consent to it. There is no general right to silence, except where to answer would require the interviewee to admit the presence of an agreement that it is the commission's job to prove.

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Art 8 of reg 1/2003 codifies the commission's power to order interim measures in cases of urgency due to risk of serious and irreparable damage. Under art. 7 1/2003 the Commission can impose behavioural or structural remedies which are proportionate to the infringement and necessary to bring it to an end. Structural remedies can be used where there is no equally effective behavioural remedy or where an equally effective behavioural remedy would be more burdensome on the

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